Don’t have scoliosis? Maybe you’re looking for help with another alignment or health concern. Here is a guide to help you see if Specific Corrective Chiropractic Care can help you.
THE WINSOR AUTOPSIES
Can an Unhealthy Spine Affect Internal Organs?
Medical doctor Dr. Henry Winsor out of Haverford Pennsylvania felt as if Chiropractic should be investigated. “I wonder how Chiropractors can claim such good results” The University of Pennsylvania gave Dr. Winsor permission to conducted an experiment based on chiropractors claim that by adjusting a displaced vertebrae they can relieve stomach troubles, ulcers, menstrual cramps, thyroid conditions, kidney disease, constipation, heart disease, lung and other diseases. In this experiment he dissected both human and animal cadavers to see if there was any relationship between any diseased internal organs discovered on autopsy and the vertebrae and nerves that went to the organs. Dr. Winsor dissected 75 human and 72 cat cadavers. He found nearly 100% correlation between minor curvatures of the vertebrae and diseases of the internal organs.
All 20 cases with heart and pericardium conditions had the upper five thoracic vertebrae misaligned (T1-T5).
All 26 cases of lung disease has spinal misalignments in the upper thoracic area.
All nine cases of stomach disease had spinal misalignment in the mid-thoracic (T5-T9) area.
All 13 cases of liver disease had misalignments in the mid-thoracic area (T5-T9).
All five cases with gallstone disease had spinal misalignments in the mid-thoracic area (T5-T9).
All three cases with pancreas disease had spinal misalignments in the mid-thoracic area (T5-T9).
All 11 cases with spleen disease had spinal misalignments in the mid-thoracic area (T5-T9).
All 17 cases with kidney disease were out of alignment in the lower thoracic area (T10-T12).
Prostate and Bladder Disease
All eight cases with prostate disease had the lumbar vertebrae misaligned.
Two cases with uterine conditions had the second lumbar misaligned.
ADD & ADHD
Upper cervical care was used for a nine-year old male with Tourette Syndrome (TS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, asthma, insomnia, and headaches since age 6. Forceps were used during his delivery. His medications included AlbuterolT, DepakoteT, WellbutrinT, and AdderallT.
Chiropractic care using an upper cervical technique corrected and stabilized the patient’s subluxation. After 6 weeks of care, all 6 conditions were no longer present and all medications were discontinued with the exception of a half-dose of WellbutrinT. At the conclusion of his case at 5 months, all symptoms remained absent. The response to care suggests a link between the patient’s traumatic birth, the upper cervical subluxation, and his neurological conditions.
Tucker’s Story. Barnes T. (Kentuckiana Children’s Center) Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Sept/Oct 2000.
Four-year-old Tucker was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and manic-depression. He was not toilet trained, would eat dirt and would grind his teeth. He was taking three strong drugs with toxic side effects. Until 12-15 months of age he was a normal, healthy, vocal child. He then regressed to autism and lost his verbal skills.
Under chiropractic care his grinding has decreased dramatically, his hyperactivity has decreased and his eye contact has improved. His mother reports that Tucker has been smiling and showing more facial expression.
There is a good probability that Tucker appears to be suffering from vaccine damage. The majority of parents of autistic children report their child’s autism appeared shortly after their shots, particularly the MMR shot which is given from 12-15 months of age. However, the initial shots, which are given shortly after birth and at two months, are known to cause autism and other neurological/developmental disorders.
Noah’s Story Leisman N. (Kentuckiana Children’s Center) Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Sept/Oct 2000.
Noah was 10 years old with chronic congestion, possible allergies and “high energy and activity levels.” He had been on Ritalin for one year, when he was 7-8 years old, but it was discontinued as it affected his ability to think, learn and organize information.
Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxations in Noah’s spine. He was also found to have high levels of aluminum and lead in his system.
Noah began receiving chiropractic adjustments, nutritional supplementation and dietary recommendations. His chronic congestion resolved. His activity level began to decrease in intensity – he was able to stay focused longer. Noah’s progress continues.
Adjusting the hyperactive/ADD pediatric patient. Peet, JB Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1997;2(4):12-15
This is the case of an 8-year-old diagnosed with ADD and hyperactivity. For three years (since kindergarten) the child had been on Ritalin T and Prozac T and undergoing behavior modification.
By his 2nd adjustment the mother noted that the child could sit still longer, though he appeared more irritable. After 3 weeks of chiropractic care all medication was removed and after 6 weeks of care the school noted improvement in cognitive skills task concentration, ability to control emotions and decreased aggressiveness.
A multi-faceted chiropractic approach to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report. Barnes, TA ICA International Review of Chiropractic. Jan/Feb 1995 pp.41-43.
From the abstract:
This is the case of an 11-year-old boy with medically diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
The child had a history of early disruptive behavior, repeated ear infections, consistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, heavy metal intoxication, food allergy, environmental sensitivity and multiple levels of biomechanical alteration.
[Under chiropractic care] He has improved academically and has advanced to the next grade level…he recognizes that he has control over his behavior and there is hope that he will be mainstreamed back into a regular public school setting soon…his mother says she notices improvement in his attention span and temper.
(The paper emphasizes the need for care in all aspects of the structural, chemical and mental triangle of health in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.)
First report on ADD study. Webster L. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter. Jan. 1994.
Case #1: Ten-year-old girl on 60 mg. Ritalin/day, severe scoliosis of 48° Cobb angle. After ten adjustments mother reported a happier child, with a better immune system with much higher endurance. Re-exam revealed scoliosis reduced to 12° . After two months care, off all medication.
Case #2: 12-year-old boy diagnosed as ADD with asthma and seizures. After 8 adjustments the parent withdrew all medication with the cooperation of their MD. Positive personality changes were noted.
Hyperactivity, stuttering, slow learner, retarded growth. Webster, L. Chiropractic Showcase Magazine, Vol. 2, Issue 5, Summer 1994.
Case Studies. Male – age 7 years. The child suffered from hyperactivity, stuttering, slow learning, retarded growth, left leg approximately 1″ shorter than right with a limp while walking. Medical plans were to break the left leg and insert metal rods in an attempt to stimulate growth and equalize the boy’s leg lengths.
Chiropractic examination revealed the following subluxations: Sacrum anterior, inferior on left, 5th lumbar body left, atlas, anterior superior left.
Patient was placed on an intensive correction program of 3 times weekly for a period of two months. During the first seven visits the legs were never balanced, although with each visit a reduction of the discrepancy occurred. By the 8th visit the legs balanced for the first time and:
- The stuttering had stopped.
- Grades in school had risen from non-satisfactory to satisfactory.
- The hyperactivity had abated.
- The limp was no longer constant.
Effects of biomechanical insult correction on attention deficit disorder. Arme J. J of Chiropractic Case Reports, Vol. 1 No. 1 Jan. 1993.
This is the case of a seven-year-old male who was referred by his mother because of radical behavioral changes that included uncharacteristic memory loss, inability to concentrate and general agitation following a motor vehicle accident. Other symptoms included loss of appetite, headache, difficulty chewing, ear pain, hearing loss, difficulty breathing through the nose, neck pain, and bilateral leg pain.
His M.D. diagnosed the child as having “attention deficit disorder” and prescribed Ritalin that the parents felt gave partial improvement. After four months on Ritalin, the mother sought chiropractic care.
Spinal examination revealed subluxations at C2 and C3, and reversal of cervical curve from C1-C4. Adjustments were given 3 times a week for 16 weeks and 2 times a week for one week. At a twelve week follow-up, a restoration of cervical curve had occurred, with residual C2 anterolisthesis. At 17 weeks, Ritalin was stopped by their M.D. and the child was no longer considered to have attention deficit syndrome. The other symptoms also resolved. The mother discontinued chiropractic care after settlement. At last interview, the patient’s behavior symptoms gradually returned and the child was back on Ritalin.
EEG and CEEG studies before and after upper cervical or SOT category 11 adjustment in children after head trauma, in epilepsy, and in “hyperactivity.” Hospers LA, Proc of the Nat’l Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics ( ICA) 1992;84-139.
Two children with petite mal seizures with potential for generating into grand mal were brought in for chiropractic care.
Chiropractic spinal analysis revealed upper cervical subluxations and adjustments to this area reduced negative EEG brainwave activity and reduced the frequency of seizures over a four-month period.
In another case of “hyperactivity” and attention deficit disorder, upper cervical adjustment reduced non-coherence between right and left hemispheres.
In another case CEEG demonstrated restoration of normal incidence of the alpha frequency spectrum. Increased attention span and improvement of social behavior were reported in both cases.
In another case, a child rendered hemiplegic after an auto accident displayed abnormal brainwave readings. After adjustment, the CEEG demonstrated more normalized brainwave readings. Child was able to utilize his left arm and leg contralaterally to the injured side of the brain without assistance after upper cervical adjustments.
The effect of chiropractic treatment on students with learning and behavioral impairments resulting from neurological dysfunction (part 2). Brzozowske WT, Walton EV. J. Aust Chiro Assoc 1980;11(8):11-17.
In the above two studies a group of 12 ADHD students receiving stimulant medication were compared to a group of 12 ADHD students receiving chiropractic care.
It was found that hyperactivity and attentiveness, along with gross and fine motor coordination improved in the group receiving chiropractic care. In the medicated group, hyperactivity and attentiveness improved initially (not gross and fine motor coordination) but the medication effectiveness decreased over time and the children required higher dosages.
Further, over half the medical group had developed personality changes, loss of appetite and insomnia relating to their treatment.
The study concluded that chiropractic care was 20-40% more effective than medication (and it had no side effects).
Chiropractic and Addictions
For over 100 years Doctors of Chiropractic have said that subluxation causes the body to lose its ability to adapt to the enviroment and that adjustments restore the bodies natural ability to adapt. However, our detracters have always held that we can’t prove this tenent. Today’s research clearly demonstrates how Chiropractic adjustments help people that have lost their ability to properly adapt to the environment. People who are addicted to the use of recreational drugs will go through an often painful process of withdrawal when they stop using. This withdrawal process is the primary reason an addict will fall out of addiction treatment program and begin using again. The withdrawal process is a clear indication of a body that is not properly adapting to a changing environment.
Chiropractic Helps in Treatment of Addicts
From the March 29, 2001 issue of the Miami Herald comes a story of how chiropractic care is helping those in a Miami drug addiction program. The story starts by explaining that patients in a residential drug-addiction program who received chiropractic care designed to realign their vertebrae completed the treatment program at a remarkable 100 percent rate.
Ninety-eight patients at Miami’s Exodus drug-treatment program participated in the study that was featured in a Journal of Nature magazine called “Molecular Psychiatry”. The study also reported that the patients involved in the study at the treatment center who received chiropractic care made fewer visits to a nurses’ station and showed significant decreases in anxiety.
Dr. Jay Holder, medical director of the Exodus program and the chiropractor who conducted the study said, “Completing a 28- to 30-day program greatly enhances an addict’s chances of staying clean, but nationally only 72 percent of participants make it all the way through such programs.” Holder went on to say, “This correction of what chiropractors call subluxation results in a sense of well-being that allows patients to benefit more thoroughly from the group therapy and medical care of addiction treatment.” “Chiropractic does not treat addiction — it does not treat any disease,” Holder said. “We’re allowing those things that treat addiction to be embraced more thoroughly.”
The participants were divided into three groups. One group got the regular regime of addiction care. The second group got “sham” (these patient’s think they have received an adjustment but they have not) adjustments, while the third group got actual chiropractic adjustments to correct subluxations. The group with the regular care and the sham chiropractic had a completion rate in the program of only 74% and 56%. The group that received the chiropractic care to correct subluxations showed a completion rate of 100%. The implications of completion of a drug treatment program are very important to preventing addicts from returning to drugs.
Long Term Remission and Alleviation of Symptoms in Allergy and Crohn’s Disease Patients Following Spinal Adjustment for Reduction of Vertebral Subluxations
Background: An association between visceral disease and immune dysfunction from sympathetic segmental disturbances secondary to vertebral subluxation has been put forward by chiropractic, osteopathic and medical practitioners. We report on the positive results of a controlled study using chiropractic adjustments to reduce subluxations in patients with Crohn’s disease and allergies. We also discuss possible mechanisms for the relationship between visceral and immune dysfunction and subluxation.
Methods: We divided 57 Crohn’s disease patients into two groups. A treatment group consisting of 17 patients and a control group consisting of 34 patients. 6 patients were excluded from the study because of their symptoms, progress and changes in blood test values and because vertebral subluxations were present only in the lumbar region. With all patients continuing their present medication, we subjected the treatment group of 17 patients to spinal adjustment in order to reduce the vertebral subluxations in the thoracic and lumbar regions and compared them with the 34 patients who did not receive spinal adjustments.
Results: Of the 17 patients who received spinal adjustments,
12 showed long-term and stable remission of their symptoms and 9 experienced an alleviation effect. We found that vertebral subluxation is a common and characteristic finding in patients with allergies and Crohn’s disease.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study the possibility may be considered that chronic nerve compression secondary to vertebral subluxation in the thoracic and lumbar regions had a significant effect on the immune function of these allergy and Crohn’s disease patients. It is further postulated that this nerve compression leads to a chronic functional disorder having a significant effect on digestion, absorption of nutrients and liquids, conveyance of food as well as various other functions of the digestive tract extending to excretion.
A New Approach to the Upper Cervical Adjusting Procedure: Part I. Kessinger RC, Bonita, DV. Chiropractic Research Journal 2000 SPR Vol. 7(1) Pgs. 14-32
Patient was a 27-year-old man with chronic sinusitis, headaches, nervousness, and insomnia. His examination revealed an atlas subluxation. Patient received upper cervical adjustments over a period of 3 months. The patient demonstrated correction of their upper cervical subluxation via pre and post Blair protracto x-ray views, spinal thermography, and pelvic balance leg length equality examinations. Patient reported a 50% reduction in frequency and intensity of all symptoms at 3 weeks and at 3 months reported he had been symptom free for 4 consecutive weeks.
The types and frequencies of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms reported after chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Leboeuf-Yde C, Axen I, Ahlefeldt G, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Nov/Dec 1999:22(9) 559-64.
In this paper the authors asked, “How frequently [do] patients report nonmusculoskeletal symptomatic improvements and [what are] the types of such reactions that patients believe to be associated with chiropractic.”
Twenty consecutive patients from 87 Swedish chiropractors answered questionnaires on return visits. A total of 1,504 questionnaires were completed and returned. Twenty-three per cent of patients reported improvement in nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, including:
Easier to breathe (98 patients)
Improved digestive function (92)
Clearer/better/sharper vision (49)
Improved circulation (34)
Less ringing in the ears (10)
Acne/eczema better (8)
Dysmenorrhoea better (7)
Asthma/allergies better (6)
Sense of smell heightened (3)
Reduced blood pressure (2)
Numbness in tongue gone (1)
Hiccups gone (1)
Menses function returned (1)
Cough disappeared (1)
Double vision disappeared (1)
Tunnel vision disappeared (1)
Less nausea (1)
Orbital sinusitis. McCarthy, R ICPA Newsletter July/August 1997.
This is the case study of “a four year old boy with headaches, vomiting, nasal drip and decreased appetite was being treated with large doses of antibiotics. Past history revealed a fall on his head at age two from a height of 4 feet.
“Chiropractic analysis revealed a left cervical rotation with retrolisthesis and rotation of C2. He was seen 2 times per week for six months. The results were excellent. No more headaches, vomiting or nasal drip. In addition, his attitude and appetite dramatically improved.”
Chiropractic adjustment in the management of visceral conditions: a critical appraisal. Jamison JR, McEwen AP, Thomas SJ. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1992; 15:171-180.
This was a survey of chiropractors in Australia. More than 50% of the chiropractors stated that asthma responds to chiropractic adjustments; more than 25% felt that chiropractic adjustments could benefit patients with dysmenorrhea, indigestion, constipation, migraine and sinusitis.
Diagnosis and treatment of TMJ, head, neck and asthmatic symptoms in children. Gillespie BR, Barnes JF, J of Craniomandibular Practice. Oct. 1990, Vol 8, No. 4.
From the abstract: “Pathologic strain patterns in the soft tissues can be a primary cause of headaches, neck aches, throat infections, ear infections, sinus congestion, and asthma.”
A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. Van Breda, WM and JM. Journal of Chiropractic Research Summer 1989.
Children under chiropractic had less use of medications, including antibiotics, and suffered from less ear infections.
Characteristics of 217 children attending a chiropractic college teaching clinic. Nyiendo J. Olsen E. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1988; 11(2):78084.
The authors found that pediatric patients at Western States Chiropractic College public clinic commonly had complaints of ear-infection, sinus problems, allergy, bedwetting, respiratory problems, and gastro-intestinal problems. Complete or substantial improvement of their chief complaint had been noted in 61.6% of pediatric patients while 60.6% received “maximum” level of improvement. Only 56.7% of adult patients received “maximum” level of improvement.
Structural normalization in infants and children with particular reference to disturbances of the CNS. Woods RH Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, May 1973, 72:P.903-908.
Post-traumatic epilepsy, allergic problems, and dizziness have been relieved by cranial manipulation.
Back Pain Research
Chronic spinal pain – a randomized clinical trial comparing medication, acupuncture and spinal manipulation. Giles LGF, Muller R. Spine 2003;28:1490-1503.
Three groups of patients with back pain were given a nine week course of care using medicine, acupuncture or chiropractic care. The results showed a significantly higher number of satisfied chiropractic patients.
The 40 medical patients were given two anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS) and the pain killer Celebrex T, Viox T or paracetamol. 18 dropped out early because the drugs either didn’t help or caused side effects. Of the 22 who completed the study only two found relief.
Out of 32 patients who tried acupuncture 10 dropped out early because they weren’t being helped. Of the rest 3 reported pain relief.
Out of 33 chiropractic patients eight dropped out because they weren’t being helped. Of the rest nine reported pain relief.
Is low back pain part of a general health pattern or is it a separate and distinctive entity?A critical literature review of co-morbidity with low back pain.
Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Manniche CJ Manipulative Physiol Ther May 2003 . Vol 26 . No. 4
This review paper (literature search) goal is to see if there is co-morbidity or other health problems in people with persistent lower back pain. Twenty-three papers were reviewed. All “showed positive associations to all disorders investigated (headache/migraine, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease, general health, and others) with the exception of diabetes.”
The conclusion states: “The literature leaves no doubt that diseases cluster in some individuals and that low back pain is part of this pattern. However, the nature of the relationship between low back pain and other disorders is still unclear.” Unfortunately the authors did not investigate whether the most important findings chiropractors could locate, the vertebral subluxation complex, was a factor. The presence of VSC may clarify the relationship between lower back pain and visceral etc. disorders.
Upper cervical management of a patient with neuromusculoskeletal and visceral complaints. McCoy M. Today’s Chiropractic May/June 2001. P. 46-47.
This is the case of a 65-year-old man who began to have symptoms of lower extremity pain and parasthesias, ambulatory problems, urinary difficulties (having to urinate every half hour) and visual problems after back surgery which fused his thoracolumbar segments. Patient also had gout which affected his right big toe and fingers, ankles, elbows and fingers. He was on Indocin for the gout. He was also on medication for high blood pressure and wore glasses for reading.
Twice as a child he suffered from head trauma. One time he fell over a railing and landed on top of his head.
The patient reported that during the evening of his first adjustment he experienced shock-like sensations bilaterally into his arms and legs. He also reported chills, a fever, and coldness in his hands, sweats, and an increase in frequency of urination, gluteal muscle soreness and loss of appetite. By the next morning the symptoms resolved.
Patient had twenty chiropractic visits over a 5 month period. By the time of the seventh visit he did not need an adjustment. The numbness and tingling along the right side of his body were gone and he was walking better. His legs felt stronger and he was not using his cane much. Sitting and standing were less troublesome.
He reports a decrease in frequency of urination to only a few times a day and that he doesn’t need his glasses for reading anymore.
Complementary care: when is it appropriate? Micozzi MS 1998. Annals of Internal Medicine:128:65-66.
“The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) recently made history when it concluded that spinal manipulative therapy is the most effective and cost-effective treatment for acute low back pain.One might concluded that for acute low-back pain not caused by fracture, tumor, infection, or the cauda equina syndrome, spinal manipulation is the treatment of choice.”
Chiropractic management of a patient with subluxations, low back pain and epileptic seizures. Alcantara, Herschong, Plaugher and Alcantara. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, Volume 21, Number 6, pp. 410-418, April 1998.
This is a case study of a 21-year-old female with a history since childhood of grand mal and petit mal seizures occurring every three hours.
Examination revealed subluxation/dysfunction at L5-S1, C6-C7 and C3-C4, retrolisthesis at L5, hypolordosis of the cervical spine and hyperextension at C6-C7.
Gonstead care was administered and at a 1.5 year follow-up, the patient reported her low back complaints had resolved and her seizures had decreased (period between seizures as great as 2 months).
The authors conclude, “Data suggests that epilepsies are common, with an incidence between 40 and 200 per 100,000 with an overall prevalence between 0.5-1.0% of the general population. When one considers the potential side effects of antiepileptic drugs, research into the effects of chiropractic care for patients with epilepsy should be initiated.”
Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low-back pain. Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM Spine 1997;22:2128-2156.
This study reported that there is “strong evidence of the effectiveness of manipulation for patients with chronic low-back pain.”
Evaluation of the Toftness system of chiropractic adjusting for subjects with chronic back pain, chronic tension headaches, or primary dysmenorrhea. Snyder, BJ, Sanders, GE Chiropractic Technique, 1996;8:3-9.
24 subjects with chronic back pain, 19 subjects with chronic tension headaches and 26 subjects with dysmenorrhea underwent a series of Toftness adjustments or sham interventions.
Toftness adjustments had significant clinical benefit, whereas those receiving sham interventions did not improve.
Manga Report, (Canada) 1993.
Enhanced chiropractic coverage under OHIP (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) as a means for reducing health care costs, attaining better health outcomes and achieving equitable access to health services. Manga, P. Report to the Ontario Ministry of Health, 1998. “On the evidence, particularly the most scientifically valid clinical studies, spinal manipulation applied by chiropractors is shown to be more effective than alternative treatments for low back pain.”
Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomized comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. Meade, T. W., Dyer, S. et al. British Medical Journal, June 1990, 300, pp. 431-437.
Chiropractic management of patients with acute and chronic back pain was significantly more cost effective than standard medical management under the National Health System. The main outcome measure used was the Oswestry Questionnaire.
Low Back Pain and Chiropractic W J Med 1989;150:351-5
“…The percentage of chiropractic patients who were ‘very satisfied’ with the care they received for low back pain was triple that for patients of family physicians.”
Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low-back pain. Waagen GN, Haldeman S et al Manual Medicine 1986;2:63-67.
The efficacy of manual treatment in low back pain: a clinical trial. US gov’t and Manga reports. Arkuszewski Z. Manual Medicine, 1986; 2:68-71.
Spinal manipulation out-performs conventional care in the most costly low back patients.
The New Zealand Commission Report, 1979. Royal Commission of Inquiry on Chiropractic in New Zealand.
This study has been referred to as “Probably the most comprehensive and detailed independent examination of chiropractic ever undertaken in any country.”
From the paper:
“The Commission has found it established beyond any reasonable degree of doubt that chiropractors have a more thorough training in spinal mechanics and spinal manual therapy than any other health professional. It would therefore be astonishing to contemplate that a chiropractor, in those areas of expertise, should be subject to the directions of a medical practitioner who is largely ignorant of those matters simply because he has had no training in them.”
Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomized comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. Meade TW, Dyer S, Browne W et al. British Medical Journal 1990; 300:1431-7.
This paper compared chiropractic and hospital outpatient care for managing low back pain of mechanical origin. From the paper:
There is therefore, economic support for the use of chiropractic in low back pain, though the obvious clinical improvement in pain and disability attributable to chiropractic treatment is in itself, an adequate reason for considering the use of chiropractic.
“The benefit of chiropractic treatment became more evident throughout the follow-up period.
“Chiropractic was particularly effective in those with fairly intractable pain-that is, those with a history of severe pain.”
Low back pain and the lumbar intervertebral disc: Clinical consideration for the doctor of chiropractic. Troyanovich SJ, Harrison DD, Harrison DE. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Feb. 1999; vol. 22, no. 2, pp96-104.
This review of the literature distills and synthesizes previously published research. The article lists various causes of low back pain, noting findings in patient histories, physical examinations, and diagnostic imaging that represent “red flags” indicating the need for referral to a specialist for surgical intervention.
After patients are screened for red flags, conservative treatment should be the first line of treatment for patients without absolute signs for surgical intervention.
The authors concluded:
Of the available conservative treatments, chiropractic management has been shown through multiple studies to be safe, clinically effective, cost-effective, and to provide a high degree of patient satisfaction. As a result, in patients . . . for whom the surgical indications are not absolute, a minimum of 2 or 3 months of chiropractic management is indicated.
Practice guideline: Acute low back problems in adults. Washington, DC: The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), U.S. Public Health Service, Dec. 1994, p. 30.
The United States Agency for Health Care Policy Research on acute low-back pain in adults.
This was a review of many treatments for acute low-back pain in adults.
Case management of nocturnal enuresis Hough DW, Today’s Chiropractic July/August 2001 p. 59/66.
The author reports that usually two to three visits are required to solve bedwetting problems. He presents two case studies that are the extremes in number of adjustments.
- Esta, a 4-year-old female, wet nearly every night. Subluxations were found at her sacrum, ilium, T3, T5 and cervical area. The next day her mother reported she was dry. She had no more problems with bedwetting from then on.
- Aaron, a 5 year old male had pain in his feet in addition to nightly bedwetting. Subluxations were found in his sacrum, ileum, thoracic and cervical spine. In addition restrictions were found in the calcaneus vulgus of both feet.
Adjustments were performed. He no longer complained of foot pain and his mother reported that he was dry about half the nights since his previous visits. “Aaron required 10 more adjustments before his bedwetting totally resolved.”
Asthma and Enuresis. Zell, P. International Chiropractic Pediatric Assn. Newsletter May/June 1998
Case report #1374
This is the case of a 7-year-old girl suffering from asthma and enuresis (bedwetting) brought to the chiropractor by her mother.
Since she was three years old she suffered from asthma along with many attacks of colds and flu. The asthma was so severe that she was hospitalized for 3 days at one time and had gone to the emergency room another time. The mother reports that her daughter would cough up a ball of phlegm following each attack.
Chiropractic examination revealed vertebral subluxation at C2, T5, T12 ileum and sacrum. She improved following her first adjustment. After the 5th adjustment the asthma and bedwetting ceased and did not return.
ADD, Enuresis, Toe Walking. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter May/June 1997. From the records of Rejeana Crystal, D.C., Hendersonville, TN.
This is the case of a six-year-old boy suffering from nightly nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting), attention deficit disorder and toe walking. He walked with his heels 4 inches above the ground. The medical specialist recommended both Achilles’ tendons cut and both ankles broken to achieve normal posture and gait.
Chiropractic findings included subluxation of atlas, occiput, sacrum and pelvis.after 4 weeks of care both heels dropped 2 inches and the bedwetting frequency decreased to 2-3 times per week. His medical doctor was shocked at his recovery under chiropractic care.
Chiropractic management of primary nocturnal enuresis. Reed WR, Beavers S, Reddy SK, Kern G.J Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol. 17, No. 9 Nov/Dec 1994.
This was a controlled clinical trial of 46 enuretic (bedwetting) children that were placed under chiropractic care. The children were under care for a 10 week period preceded by and followed by a 2 week no treatment period.
The 46 children were divided into two groups: 31 received chiropractic care and 15 were in the control group.
At the end of the study, 25% of the treatment-group children had 50% or more reduction in the wet night frequency from baseline to post-treatment while none among the control group had such reduction.
Bed-wetting; two case studies. Marko, RB Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 1 No 1 April 1994.
This is the case of a five-year-old female who had been wetting her bed for six months and was prescribed antibiotics for what MDs diagnosed as a bladder infection.
After the second chiropractic adjustment, she stopped wetting her bed for three weeks. She had a bad fall and began to wet her bed again. Following her next adjustment, she has remained dry.
This is the case of a nine-year-old male who wet his bed almost every day of his life. During his first six months of chiropractic care he would remain dry for one or two days after his adjustments. A change in adjustments to the sacrum resulted in greater improvement. He is now dry for one-half to two-thirds of the nights between the adjustments.
Functional nocturnal enuresis. Blomerth PR. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1994:17:335-338.
This is the case of an eight-year-old male bed-wetter. He was adjusted once in the lumbar spine. At a one month follow-up there was complete resolution of enuresis.
The child had two wet nights following a sports accident but was adjusted and the bed-wetting ceased. He had minor accidents one year and two years later, with enuresis starting again. In both instances the bedwetting ceased after adjustments.
The author remarks: “This happened in a manner that could not be attributed to time or placebo effect,” since the patient didn’t know that adjustments could affect that condition.”
Nocturnal enuresis: treatment implication for the chiropractor. Kreitz, BG, Aker PD. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994:17(7): 465-473.
A review of the literature of nocturnal enuresis is presented. The author states: “Spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to possess an efficacy comparable to the natural history.”
Epileptic seizures, nocturnal enuresis, ADD. Langley C. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 1 No. 1, April, 1994.
This is the case of an eight-year-old female with a history of epilepsy, heart murmur, hypoglycemia, nocturnal enuresis and attention deficit disorder.
The doctors told her mother that her daughter would never ride a bike or do things like normal children. She was wetting the bed every night, experiencing 10-12 seizures/day, with frequent mood swings, stomach pains and diarrhea. She was in special education classes for the learning disabled.
The child had been to five pediatricians, three neurologists and six psychiatrists. She had ten hospitalizations and had been on Depakote T, Depakene, T Tofranil T and Tegretol T.
Her birth was difficult (cesarean section under general anesthesia). Her mother was told the baby was allergic to breast milk and formulas and was on prescription feeding.
Chiropractic adjustments were to C1 and C2 three times/week. After two weeks of care, the bed-wetting began to resolve and was completely resolved after six months. During that period, her attention deficit disorder resolved and she left special education classes to enter regular fifth grade classes.
Her seizures diminished to 8-10 per week after one year of care. She was released from psychiatric care as “self managing.”
Her resistance to disease increased and she can now ride a bike, roller skate and ice skate like a normal child. She is expected to be off all medication within a month of this writing.
Chiropractic care of children with nocturnal enuresis: A prospective outcome study. LeBoeuf, C.; Brown, P; Herman, A; Leembruggen K; Walton D; Crisp TC. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1991, 14 (2), pp. 110-115.
This is the study of 171 children with a history of persistent bed-wetting at night who received eight chiropractic adjustments each.
The average number of wet nights fell from 7 per week to 4 per week. At the end of the study, 25% of the children were classified as successes
Additionally 1% of patients were considered “dry” at the beginning of the study, while 15.5% were considered “dry” at the end of the study.
Management of pediatric asthma and enuresis with probable traumatic etiology. Bachman TR, Lantz CA Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics (ICA), 1991: 14-22.
This is the case of a 34-month-old boy with asthma and enuresis who had not responded to medical care.
He was brought to the hospital emergency room more than 20 times for his asthma attacks during a 12-month history.
The boy received three chiropractic adjustments over an 11 day period and the asthma symptoms and enuresis ceased for more than 8 weeks.
The asthma and enuresis recurred following a minor fall from a step ladder but disappeared after adjustments. After a two-year follow-up, the mother reports no recurrence of the asthma or the enuresis.
Blood Pressure Research
Latest findings show Chiropractic can help reduce blood pressure
More than 3.6 million Australians over the age of 25 have high blood pressure or are on medication for the condition, but findings recently released by the Chiropractors’ association of Australia indicate there is a non-drug alternative that can lower abnormal blood pressure in healthy bodies by 7.8% – 13%.
The latest findings published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol, 24,No.2,by Dr Gary Knutson DC., show chiropractic adjustments to the upper neck can lower systolic blood pressure almost immediately.
According to Dr Laurie Tassell, National Spokesperson for the Chiropractors’ Association of Australia, a chiropractic pilot study involving 80 people found there is a relationship between the upper neck vertebrae and the body’s natural blood pressure control reflexes.
“With gentle chiropractic adjustment to the upper neck, blood pressure can be lowered, with good results measured for older patients in particular,” he said.
Traditionally the causes of blood pressure, according to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, have been linked to excess weight, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, dietary salt intake and nutrition patterns with low intake of fruit and vegetables and a high intake of saturated fat.
Data from the 1999-2000 study of general practice activity in Australia shows that high blood pressure is the most common problem managed by general practitioners, accounting for 6% of all problems managed.
“This is where the results of our finding are significant, because chiropractic spinal adjustments may be able to reduce a patient’s blood pressure and in conjunction with visits to their local GP, the level of prescribed drugs may be significantly reduced,” said Dr Tassell.
A report by the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study found that in 1999-2000, more than 3.6million Australians over the age of 25 had high blood pressure, which equates to 31% of men and 26% of women.
“These chiropractic research findings and the affect of high blood pressure on the Australian population provide a good foundation to recommend further studies involving larger groups for more detailed testing,” said Dr Tassell.
Further to this the Chiropractors’ Association of Australia hope to conduct further studies to identify direct connections between joint problems and muscle tension, and its effects on the nerve reflexes.
“The benefit of chiropractic care is that it is a drugless, painless, and surgically free approach to good health, with the goal of helping allow the body to function and repair itself,” said Dr Tassell.
Chiropractic management of a hypertensive patient: a case study. Plaugher G. Bachman TR.
A case study of a 38 year old male presented with a complaint of hypertension of 14 years duration and side effects of medication (minipress and Corgard) which included bloating sensations, depression ,fatigue and impotency. Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxation complex at levels Cervical 6-7,Thoracic 3-4,and 7-8 motion units (vertabrae).
After three visits the patient’s M.D. stopped the Minipress and reduced the Corgard. After six adjustments corgard was reduced again. All medications were stopped after seven adjustments. Medication side effects had abated as well.
After 18 months patients blood pressure remained at normal levels.
High blood pressure is something many people suffer from and yet, in most cases the cause is unknown.
Case studies showing changes in blood pressure after Chiropractic care are becoming more and more abundant. Although not a treatment for any disease Chiropractic is designed to maximize life and boost the bodies recuperative powers. Chiropractic teaches us to remove all interferences with body function (subluxation) and to seek out more natural, conservative methods before submitting to more radical (drug and surgical) approaches. Exercise, rest and emotional care, along with a healthy spine and nervous system are all vital for optimal health and well – being. Explore them all.
“While results cannot be predicted for a particular hypertensive patient, a therapeutic trial of chiropractic co-management would seem to be warranted, especially when dysfunction is identified in relevant spinal areas. Proper lifestyle advice and medical care should be concurrent with a regime of adjusting. The authors advise close monitoring of blood pressure for all chiropractic patients on anti-hypertensive medication…the combined effects of the adjustment and the medication might drive a patient’s blood pressure below normal.”
The effect of cranial adjusting on hypertension: a case report. Connelly DM, Rasmussen SA Chiropractic Technique, May 1998; 10(2):75-78.
This paper describes the experiences of three hypertensive patients who underwent chiropractic sacrooccipital cranial technique.
One was a 73 year-old woman with a blood pressure of 170/100. Immediately following chiropractic care it was 120/78 and over the next few months measured 140/72.
The second patient was a 41 year-old woman with a blood pressure of 170/95. With cranial care it dropped to an average of 147/90. She was instructed to remove her dental plate at night and a couple of times during the day and her blood pressure dropped to 130/90.
The third patient was a 74 year-old male on blood pressure medication who presented a blood pressure of 140/100. After a series of adjustments he was told by his MDs to reduce and eliminate medications. He presented with a blood pressure of 130/80 on his last visit.
An effect of sacro occipital technique on blood pressure. Unger J, Sweat S, Flanagan S, Chudowski S. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. 1993 A/M. P. 87.
A single chiropractic intervention can bring about a significant reduction in blood pressure in a hypertensive group of subjects. Not only was the reduction in systolic blood pressure statistically significant; more important was the clinical significance of this effect.
Chiropractic management of a hypertensive patient: a case study. Plaugher G, Bachman TR. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics accepted for publication 1993.
A 38-year-old male complaining of hypertension of 14 years duration was suffering from the side effects of medication (Minipress T and Corgard T ): bloating sensations, depression, fatigue, and impotency.
Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxation complex at levels C6-7, T3-4, and T7-8.
After three visits, patient’s M.D. stopped the Minipress T and reduced the Corgard T After ix adjustments, Corgard T was reduced again. All medications were stopped after seven adjustments. Medication side effects had abated as well. After 18 months, patient’s blood pressure remained at normal levels.
Hypertension and the atlas subluxation complex. Goodman R. Chiropractic: J of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation. Vol 8 No. 2, July 1992. Pp. 30-32.
Six of eight patients under chiropractic experienced relief of symptoms and lowered blood pressure after chiropractic care. The blood pressures of two subjects remained unchanged or increased sometime during the test period.
“Systolic pressure was lowered by an average of 27mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure by an average of 13mm Hg. In several subjects, other symptoms such as low back pain, thoracic tightness, headaches, and general malaise, diminished following the adjustments. Those subjects who were not on medication showed the greatest change.”
Preliminary study of blood pressure changes in normotensive subjects undergoing chiropractic care. McKnight ME, DeBoer KF, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics,1988; 11:261-266.
Seventy-five people were tested after specific chiropractic cervical adjustments.
Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the adjusted group. No significant changes occurred in the control group.
In those with the highest pre-treatment blood pressures, the treatment effect was greatest, indicating that the effectiveness in hypertensives may be even more significant.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Research
Conservative chiropractic care of cervicobrachialgia Glick DM, Chiropr Res J, 1989; 1(3):49-52
Cervicobrachialgia, also known as “brachial neuritis” or “brachial neuralgia” involves neck and arm pain that can be described as “sharp,” “stabbing,” or “aching,” with acute sudden onset. The pain is in the shoulder blade, the side of the neck and may continue through the upper arm.
This is the case of a 42 year-old woman diagnosed with the above condition who had suffered a fall skiing during the prior week when symptoms began. Upper cervical x-rays revealed the atlas to be displaced laterally to the right and rotated anterior on that side. The patient was adjusted upper cervically by hand.
Immediately following the first adjustment the patient reported noticeable relief in symptoms. 48 hours later she received a second adjustment. Three days later she was checked again and did not need an adjustment.
Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Davis PT, Hulbert JR, Kassak KM, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, June 1998, vol.21/no.5, pp317-26.
This study showed that chiropractic was as effective as medical treatment in reducing symptoms of CTS. Chiropractic care included spinal adjustments, and in addition, ultrasound over the carpal tunnel and the use of nighttime wrist supports.
Double crush syndrome: a chiropractic/surgical approach to treatment. Cramer SR, Cramer LM Dig of Chiropractic Economics Mar/April, 1991.
Seventy five patients received chiropractic and hand surgery/rehabilitation. It was concluded that these two approaches are complementary and can be effective in improving the lives and prognoses of patients.
A treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome: evaluation of objective and subjective measures. Bonebrake AR, Fernandez JE, Marley RJ et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Vol.13 No.9 Nov/Dec 1990.
Thirty-eight CTS sufferers underwent spinal manipulation and extremity adjusting, soft tissue manipulation, dietary changes and daily exercises. Post treatment results showed improvement in all strength and range of motion measures. A significant reduction of nearly 15% in pain and distress ratings was documented.
Resolution of a double-crush syndrome. Flatt DW. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, July/August 1994; 17(6): 395-397.
A 63-year-old man suffered from a 36-month history of right anterior leg numbness and recurrent lower back pain. Complete resolution of right anterior leg numbness followed chiropractic. Although not a carpal tunnel problem, the double crush phenomenon, in this case involving the leg, and its resolution under chiropractic care is of interest.
The short-term effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of infantile colic: a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded observer, Wiberg JMM, Nordsteen J, Nilsson N. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. October 1999; Vol. 22, No. 8, pp. 517-522.
This is a randomized controlled trial that took place in a private chiropractic practice and the National Health Service’s health visitor nurses in a suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark.
One group of infants received spinal care for 2 weeks, the other was treated with the drug Dimethicone T for 2 weeks. Changes in daily hours of crying were recorded in a colic diary.
Hours of crying reduced by 1 hour in the Dimethicone group compared with 2.4 hours in the chiropractic group by day 4-7. On days 8 through 11, crying was reduced by 1 hour for the Dimethicone group, compared with 2.7 hours in the chiropractic group.
In the 12 days of the study, the children under chiropractic care had a 67% reduction in crying while the group treated with drugs had a 38% reduction in crying. The mean number of adjustments given during the two-week study was 3.8.
A six week old baby with colic. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter. May/June 1997.
A six week baby with colic who could not sleep for more than one hour at a time and could not hold food down was brought in for chiropractic check up.
A subluxation at C1 was corrected. After the first adjustment the infant fell asleep before leaving the office and slept for 8 hours straight. The baby gained two pounds in one week.
The child was seen three times per week for two months, thereafter once a week. The colic symptoms never returned.
Chiropractic management of an infant experiencing breastfeeding difficulties and colic: a case study. Sheader, WE, Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999.
This is the case of a 15-day old emaciated male infant experiencing inability to breastfeed and colic since birth.
When he entered the chiropractor’s office, he was crying constantly, “shaking, screaming, rash, and vomiting during and after feeding”. The baby also had “increased distress” 30 minutes after feeding and had excessive abdominal and bowel gas since birth. The mother reported the infant was given a Hepatitis B vaccination within hours after birth. The pediatrician prescribed formula but baby reacted poorly to it.
During the examination the infant continuously cried, with high-pitched screams, and full-body shaking. Child had a distended abdomen with excessive bowel gas.
After the first adjustment (to C1) a significant reduction of crying, screaming and shaking occurred. On the second visit, two days later the mother commented, “This is a completely different baby”. The vomiting before and after feeding had ceased. Another adjustment was given. By the third visit, a “significant decrease of symptoms” was reported and complete remission of abdominal findings. Baby had been successfully breastfeeding since last visit. No adjustment was needed.
The baby had been symptom free for 5 days and received a second Hepatitis B vaccination. All symptoms returned to a severe degree, plus a low grade fever. Adjustment was given but there was no reduction of symptoms. The patient was adjusted three more times over the next week with minimal reduction in symptoms. By the eighth visit, eight days after receiving the vaccination, the child began to show marked improvement and by the 11th visit, no symptoms were noticed and no adjustment was given. Seventeen days after vaccination there was a return of all symptoms; by the 13th visit “the infant did not exhibit any significant recurring symptoms.
Colic with projectile vomiting: a case study. Van Loon, Meghan. J of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics. Vol. 3 No. 1 1998. 207-210.
This is the case of a three-month-old male medically diagnosed with colic and projectile vomiting increasing in severity over the previous two months despite medical intervention.
Care consisted of chiropractic spinal adjustments and craniosacral therapy with the resolution of all presenting symptoms within a 2-week treatment period. Proposed cranial and spinal etiologies are discussed as well as the connection between birth trauma and non-spinal symptoms.
Chiropractic care of infantile colic: a case study. Killinger LZ and Azad A. J of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics. Vol. 3 No. 1 1998. Pp. 203-206
This is the study of an 11-month-old boy with severe, complicated, late onset infantile colic. He was unable to consume solid foods for a period of four months, and suffered from severe constipation, muscular weakness and lack of coordination. The baby was unable to crawl, stand or walk and was greatly unresponsive to his surroundings.
[The child had been under medical care at the Rochester Medical Clinic, with no improvement in his condition.]
Following upper cervical specific chiropractic adjustments for a subluxation of the first cervical vertebrae (atlas), there were immediate improvements in muscle strength, coordination, responsiveness, and ability to consume solid foods without vomiting.
Chiropractic management of an infant patient experiencing colic and difficulty breastfeeding: a case report. Cuhel JM, Powell M, Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 1997 2(2) 150-154.
A 12-day-old male with difficulty in feeding on the right breast, “fussy” and producing excess bowel gas was brought to the chiropractor.
Subluxations were found at the occiput and atlas. The infant showed visible signs of distress on palpation of the right cervical soft tissue structures.
A chiropractic adjustment was performed to the atlas and the mother was able to breastfeed the infant at the office immediately following the adjustment with no problems nursing on the right breast.
However additional chiropractic adjustments met with limited success. The mother was advised that the injections of Depo-Provera (contraceptive injection) she was receiving may be contributing to the infant’s problem. She did not receive the next injection as scheduled. Adjustments were continued and the infant’s pattern of breastfeeding and bowel function normalized.
Infantile colic treated by chiropractors: a prospective study of 316 cases. Klougart N, Nilsson N and Jacobsen J (1989) Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 12:281-288.
Seventy three chiropractors adjusted the spines of 316 infants (median age 5.7 weeks at initial examination) with moderate to severe colic (average 5.2 hours of crying per day).
The mothers used a diary to keep track of the baby’s symptoms, intensity and length of the colicky crying as well as how comfortable the infant seemed. 94% of the children showed a satisfactory response within 14 days of chiropractic care (usually three visits). After four weeks, the improvements were maintained.
One fourth of these infants showed great improvement after the very first chiropractic adjustment. The remaining infants all showed improvement within 14 days.
Note: 51% of the infants had undergone prior unsuccessful treatment, usually drug therapy.
The types and frequencies of non-musculoskeletal symptoms reported after chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Leboeuf-Yde C, Axen I, Ahlefeldt G, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999:22(9):559-564.
Twenty consecutive patients from 87 Swedish chiropractors answered questionnaires on return visits. A total of 1,504 questionnaires were completed and returned. Twenty-three per cent of patients reported improvement in nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, including:
Easier to breathe (98 patients)
Improved digestive function (92)
Clearer/better/sharper vision (49)
Improved circulation (34)
Less ringing in the ears (10)
Acne/eczema better (8)
Dysmenorrhoea better (7)
Asthma/allergies better (6)
Sense of smell heightened (3)
Reduced blood pressure (2)
Numbness in tongue gone (1)
Hiccups gone (1)
Menses function returned (1)
Cough disappeared (1)
Double vision disappeared (1)
Tunnel vision disappeared (1)
Less nausea (1)
Case study: three year old female with acute stomach problems. Peet JB Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1997;310-11.
This is the case study of a 3 year-old with acute stomach complaints including indigestion and pain that started after a fall off her bed onto the floor. After the fifth visit all of her symptoms resolved.
The mechanically induced pelvic pain and organic dysfunction syndrome: An often overlooked cause of bladder, bowel, gynecological, and sexual dysfunction. Browning JF. Journal of the Neuromusculoskeletal System 1996; 4:52-667
Pelvic pain and organic dysfunction (PPOD) syndrome is thought to be caused by a lumbar spine problem causing secondary impairment of lower sacral nerve root function. Patients report bladder, bowel, gynecologic and sexual dysfunction.
This is the case of a 29 year-old woman with bilateral and low back pain. Previous chiropractic care gave partial relief but an exacerbation was accompanied by inguinal pain, urinary stress incontinence, loss of genital sensitivity, loss of libido and vaginal discharge. A gynecological exam failed to reveal any pathology.
Lower sacral nerve root involvement, secondary to a L5/S1 disc herniation was found. After the first adjustment the patient initially experienced symptoms (pain and paraesthesia of the genitalia) but within one week, bladder dysfunction had resolved, and the other symptoms were less severe. After 4 weeks, all her PPOD symptoms had resolved.
Indigestion and heartburn: a descriptive study of prevalence in persons seeking care from chiropractors. Bryner P and Staerker, PG. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1996; 19(5); 317-23.
1,567 persons who consulted eight chiropractors on 2,974 occasions during November 1994 were surveyed. 57% reported indigestion infrequently or more, 71% reported mid-back pain during the previous 6 months and 46% experienced both symptoms during this time. 22% of those with indigestion reported some relief after chiropractic care.
Segmental spinal osteophytosis in visceral disease. Burchett GD J of the American Osteopathic Association 1968; 67(6): 675.
Sixty-one hospital patients were examined and in 88% of patients with gallbladder disease there was lipping from T7-T10; spinal osteophytes (T9-T11) were found in 82% of those with stomach disease. Many sufferers of pancreatic disease had segments T5-T7 involved and 31% of patients with duodenal disease had osteophytes at T9-L2.
Irritable bowel syndrome and spinal manipulation: a case report. Wagner T, Owen J, Malone E, Mann K. Chiropractic Technique 1996; 7: 139-140.
Irritable bowel syndrome, also known as mucous colitis and nervous bowel affects 15-25% of adults. Symptoms include cramping and/or abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, ulcer-type symptoms, heartburn and/or upper abdominal indigestion.
In this case study of a 25-year-old woman with chronic irritable bowel syndrome her chief complaint was intestinal pain and diarrhea which was worse during stressful periods which occurred one or two times per week for the past five years.
After her first chiropractic adjustment, she reported that she had not experienced any diarrhea for two days. Her symptoms were quickly alleviated during the course of her care. Two years later she remained symptom free.
Enuresis, spasmodic dysmenorrhea and gastric discomfort: a vertebral subluxation complex entity. Regan KJ Digest of Chiropractic Economics March/April 1990;32(5):110.
Patients suffering from bed-wetting, menstrual cramps and ulcer pains/indigestion were given chiropractic care. MDs performed pap tests, pelvic exams and upper GI studies and were negative for active pathology. One subject did have a true peptic ulcer and demonstrated a desire to be in the study.
“A total of eight subjects in each category were selected and two in each category were not treated (to be used as control studies)..It should be noted here that no one had any low back, dorsal or cervical spine pain prior to being a patient in this program.
“In the dysmenorrhea category, all cases of pelvic pain and severe cramping of the uterus had stopped. All women experienced three menstrual cycles through the duration of their menses. “The bedwetting category demonstrated 50% of the children had stopped bedwetting early in the program, 25% of the children had a 50% reduction in the frequency of occurrences and 25% showed no improvement.
All the patients in the gastric category except one responded to chiropractic care; no one was taken off medication or put on special diet.”
Ear Infection Research
“Chiropractic Care of 401 Children with Otitis Media: A Pilot Study”. Found in the March 1998 edition of Alternative Therapies and authored by Fallon and Edelman.
“There is a strong correlation between chiropractic adjustment and the resolution of otitis media for the children in this study, which can serve as a starting point from which those in the chiropractic profession can examine their role.”
By the age of three, over two thirds of all children have had one or more episodes of otitis media or middle ear infection. There are numerous problems with antibiotic usage for children with ear infections such as: allergic reactions, GI upset, destruction of the gut’s intestinal flora leading to yeast proliferation and antibiotic resistance. Tubes in the ears have a 98% recurrence of infection within two months while 25% of those with tubes suffer from hearing loss years later.
The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment as adjuvant therapy in children with recurrent acute otitis media, Mills, MV; Henley, CE, Barnes, LLB et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:861-866.
57 patients 6 months to 6 years old with 3 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) in the previous 6 months, or 4 in the previous year were placed randomly into 2 groups: one receiving routine pediatric care (32), the other receiving routine care plus osteopathic manipulative treatment (25).
The osteopathic patients had fewer episodes of AOM, fewer surgical procedures, and more surgery-free months and more normal tympanograms. No adverse reactions were reported.
This study suggest osteopathic manipulations may prevent or decrease surgical intervention or antibiotic overuse with children with AOM.
The management of acute otitis media using S.O.T. and S.O.T. Craniopathy. Hochman J. Today’s Chiropractic May/June 2001. Pages 41-42.
Sisters aged 2 and 4 with chronic ear infections who had received numerous courses of antibiotics over at least two years (no improvement) were adjusted using SOT and Dynamic Spinal Analysis methods. After the first visit, the mother reported that both children were “doing much better.” No more ear infections have been reported.
Chiropractic care of 401 children with otitis media: a pilot study. Fallon and Edelman. Alternative Therapies March 1998 4(2):93
There is a strong correlation between chiropractic adjustments and the resolution of otitis media for the children in this study, Chiropractors do not treat otitis media or any other malady, rather we correct the cause of the vertebral subluxation and allow the power that made the body to heal the body. It happens no other way.
Case study: chiropractic results with a child with recurring otitis media accompanied by effusion. Peet, JB Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1996;2:8-10.
This is the study of a 5 year-old male who had recurring ear infections every three to six weeks for the previous two years. He had been on antibiotic therapy. The child began chiropractic care and for the next six month period had only one infection.
Irritable child with chronic ear effusion/infections responds to chiropractic care. Thomas D. Chiropractic Pediatrics 1997; 3(2) 13-14.
This child had chronic ear effusion infections since birth which continued regularly until 12 months of age. He was adjusted at 11 months for an atlas subluxation. After 8 weeks of care the child had not experienced an ear infection for one month and had not had any drugs or antibiotics since chiropractic care. Improvements in personality and behavior were also noted by the mother, babysitters and the chiropractor.
The role of the chiropractic adjustment in the care and treatment of 332 children with otitis media. Fallon, JM. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Oct 1997, 2(2):167-183.
311 of the 332 had a history of prior antibiotic use. 53.7% of the children had their first bout of otitis media between the ages of 6 months and 1 year and a total of 69.9% of the subjects in the study had their first bout of OM under a year of age. This is consistent with the findings of others.
The children were 27-days-old to five-years-old. The average number of adjustments administered by types of otitis media were as follows: acute otitis media (127 children) 4 adjustments; chronic/serous otitis media (104 children) 5 adjustments; for mixed type of bilateral otitis media (10 children) 5.3 adjustments; where no otitis was initially detected (74 children) 5.88 adjustments. The number of days it took to normalize the otoscopic examination was for acute 6.67, chronic/serous 8.57 and mixed 8.3. The number of days it took to normalize the tympanographic examination was acute 8.35, chronic/serous 10.18 and mixed 10.9 days. The overall recurrence rate over a six month period from initial presentation in the office was for acute 11.02%, chronic/serous 16.34%, for mixed 30% and for none present 17.56%.
Prevention and therapy of serous otitis media by oral decongestants. A double-blind study in pediatric practice. Olson, AL; Klein SW; Charney E. MacWhinney JB Jr., McInerny TK, Miller RL, Nazarian LF, Cunningham D.. et al Pediatrics Vol. 62, May 1978, 679-84.
57% of patients with phyaryngitis were treated on the first day of sore throat with spinal manipulative therapy and salt water gargle. All were symptom free the second day.
100% of patients with laryngitis were treated on the first day of illness, with spinal manipulative therapy and voice function returned to normal within one day.
Characteristics of 217 children attending a chiropractic college teaching clinic. Nyiendo J. Olsen E. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1988; 11(2):78084.
The authors found that pediatric patients at Western States Chiropractic College public clinic commonly had ordinary complaints of ear-infection, sinus problems, allergy, bedwetting, respiratory problems, and gastro-intestinal problems. Complete or substantial improvement was noted in 61.6% of pediatric patients of their chief complaint, 60.6% received “maximum” level of improvement while 56.7% of adult patients received “maximum” level of improvement.
Chiropractic results with a child with recurring otitis media accompanied by effusion. Peet, JB Chiropractic Pediatrics, 1996;2:8-10.
This is a case study of a five year old male with recurring otitis media. During the six months of adjustments, the child had only one middle ear infection with mild effusion. In the previous year, the child had recurring middle ear infections with effusion approximately every three to six weeks.
Fibromyalgia and Chiropractic
What is FMS according to medical science? FMS is a chronic (i.e. long standing) condition. The patient has muscular pain and tenderness throughout the body and frequently other symptoms like sleep disturbances, fatigue, hearing disturbances, muscle twitches, cold extremities, headaches & migraines, TMJ syndrome and blurred vision. For a diagnosis of fibromyalgia to be concluded, although fibromyalgia can be over diagnosed , the patient must exhibit tenderness in a minimum of 11 of 18 pre-defined points on the body (see figures). Have a good look at the location of these points, as I think that along with other evidence they provide a pointer to a possible cause of FMS.
Although the exact cause of FMS has apparently not been discovered and there are various research theories including poor nutrition, stress factors, alterations in the pattern of sleep and changes in neuroendocrine transmitters (serotonin, substance P, growth hormone and cortisol) a common theme which appears to emerge throughout the research is that of poor posture, cervical spine dysfunction and degeneration in the spinal joints.
Hiemeyer et al for example, examined 40 patients with FMS and noted the relationship between posture and tender points. They discuss disappearance of tenderness at a number of the tender point sites following correction of posture and conclude; “flexed posture could be an important factor in generalized muscular pain, and posture therefore should be an essential part of the clinical examination of patients with FMS.”
Muller et al states “In fibromyalgia as well as in low back pain we frequently find disturbances of the posture of vertebral column clinically and radiologically.” Further Buskila et al examined two groups of patients, a control group (59) consisting of patients with leg fractures and a study group (102) with a neck injuries. “FMS was diagnosed in 21.6% of people with neck injuries versus 1.7% of those in the control group” and further “FMS was 13 times more frequent following a neck injury than following a lower extremity injury” and “almost all symptoms were more common and severe in the group with the neck injury”.
Schnur conducted a review of the record of 61 patients with primary fibromaylgia syndrome (PFS) and found “in over 50% of examined patients diagnostic details referred to chronic lumbar and cervical spine syndromes” and chronic lumbar and cervical spine syndromes predispose the person to development of PFS.
A study by Ambrogio et al is interesting if only for the finding that “from a patient’s perspective, neck support is an important part of a comprehensive physiotherapy program.” Thus FMS patients, in a small study, indicate that to have some support for their necks was important to them. This is another pointer, I assert, to the cervical spine being heavily involved in the origin of FMS. In fact, I believe, like others before me, that it is highly likely that a subluxation at the level of the atlas is the causal factor in the generation of FMS, and patients should be checked by professional precision upper cervical chiropractors. Such subluxations not only initiate pain in the neck, head, and shoulders, but also have been shown to directly cause postural distortions.
A study by Larsson R, Oberg PA, Larsson SE is interesting because the authors propose “chronic neck pain may increase the transmitter activity of neuropeptides in the upper cervical medulla causing impairment of blood flow in the local muscle” and conclude “an impaired regulation of the microcirculation in the local muscle is of central importance in chronic trapezius myalgia, causing nioceptive pain.” This study, these two studies, and many other studies by Larsson et al, show patients with neck and shoulder pain as having reduced blood flow through these painful muscles, further exacerbating the pain. I assert that if your “head is not on straight”, your cervical and shoulder muscles fight to maintain your head erect. These spasms I believe cause the neck, back and shoulder pain associated with FMS. Further atrophy (wasting) of these muscles due most probably to reduced blood flow just compounds the painful problem.
Could it be that an upper cervical subluxation uncorrected over a long period directly causes FMS? Let’s look at Dr Daniel Clark’s (www.uppercervicalillustrations.com) graphic opposite. (Reprinted with permission from Daniel O. Clark, D.C.)
This is what is known in upper cervical chiropractic circles to occur to the body/skeleton when one sustains an atlas subluxation. Now look at the location of the tender points in the previous diagrams. I contend that if you overlay those tender points over this diagram, the tender points will correlate highly to muscle tension caused by the misaligned skeleton. The neck, shoulder, pelvis and knees are all affected by the upper cervical subluxation. The 10 tender points to the top of the body (front and rear) could be caused by the muscles straining to hold the head perpendicular. The others may be due to the unlevel pelvis and corresponding functional short leg. Now think about the earlier references to poor posture and cervical spine disorders in those people with FMS. Is there a connection? I think so.
Not many therapies appear to be successful at alleviating FMS symptoms. One study by Freidman and Nelson does discuss some success with some individuals using “ice water circulating through hollow metal tubes” which was delivered “intraorally for 15 minutes in the posterior maxillary area”. According to the authors, 9 out of 12 patients had “reduced cervical pain perception” and electromyography revealed less upper trapezius signal, or lessening of pain in the trapezius muscles. The authors suggest a “strong trigemino-cervical relationship to neck pain and headache.” There’s that reference to neck (cervical) pain again!
If an upper cervical subluxation is responsible for postural changes, neck pain and the development of FMS as I suggest then upper cervical chiropractic may have a role to play in the treatment of FMS patients.
Like conventional treatment studies however, there haven’t been a lot of studies which demonstrate the efficacy of a chiropractic treatment for FMS, but if you read the chiropractic studies the results appear to be quite favorable.
A study by Blunt, Rajwani and Guerriero of 21 patients consisted of a utilizing “chiropractic spinal manipulation, soft tissue therapy and passive stretching” and the results indicated that “chiropractic management improved patients’ cervical and lumbar ranges of motion .. and reported pain levels”. A study by Hains combining spinal manipulation and ischemic compression found results of “statistically significant lessening of pain intensity and corresponding improvement in quality of sleep and fatigue levels.” Hains and Hains conclude that the “study suggests a potential role for chiropractic care in the management of fibromyalgia”.
In a study of 23 patients with fibromyalgia by Amalu he states “The most common medical treatments for FMS and CFS can include one or more of the following: tricyclic antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, physical therapy, gentle stretching, low impact exercises, stress reduction, counseling, and lidocaine injections with or without hydrocortisone”. It is not uncommon for FMS or CFS patients themselves to try many treatments including but not limited to physical therapy, massage, acupuncture, mainstream chiropractic, osteopathy, medications and exercise with little to no improvement. As a result of pursuit of these multiple therapies it is also a common for patients to doubt the efficacy of yet another treatment like upper cervical chiropractic.
However, you will note that Amalu’s “treatment consisted solely of corrections to aberrant arthrokinematic function of the occipito-atlanto-axial complex.” In other words treatment to correct dysfunction of the upper cervical spine [C0(skull)-C1(atlas)-C2(axis)]. He uses an upper cervical chiropractic method of adjusting known as Applied Upper Cervical Biomechanics (International Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association-IUCCA) in combination with paraspinal infrared scans to measure the stabilization of the upper cervical joint complex and hence effectiveness of the adjustment.
Amalu found “Upon stabilizing the upper cervical spine .. improvement in the symptomatic profile of both FMS and CFS was 92-100% (VAS) for all 23 patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is mentioned because invariably FMS patients are also diagnosed with CFS. Read the entire case for the patient outcomes.
In conclusion Amalu states “The body of literature detailing the upper cervical spine’s role in affecting global physiology is substantial. Further research into this area of the spine, combined with objective monitoring of neurophysiology, may reveal that chiropractic does indeed offer a consistent conservative solution for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.”
Headaches Helped by Chiropractic Says Research
In the September 2001 issue of the Journal of Manipulative and Physio logical Therapeutics was a report on the effectiveness of chiropractic care, specifically labeled “SMT” in the study, for patients with chronic headaches. The data for this report was gathered from nine trials involving 683 patients with chronic headache.
In this study chiropractic adjustments (termed SMT in the study) were compared to massage and medications for short term relief of up to six weeks after a month of care. The question of long term health benefits was not addressed. Results showed that the chiropractic group did better than the massage group. The group that received medication also showed relief however; the rate of side effects for the medication group was considerably higher than the chiropractic group. This difference gave a decidedly large advantage to chiropractic over the medication.
According to the report, the financial cost of headaches is great, with billions of dollars spent annually for lost productivity and treatment. The study also noted that medical practitioners have commonly treated people affected with headaches. Recently however, they are increasingly turning to non-medical or alternative therapies for relief. A recent study from Harvard University by Dr. Eisenberg reported that one of the most common alternative practitioners sought out for the treatment of headaches was the chiropractor. This study confirms what most chiropractors and their patients have already known, that chiropractic is one of the most effective avenues of health for headache sufferers.
Vectored upper cervical manipulation for chronic sleep bruxism, headache and cervical spine pain in a child. Knutson, G.J, Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol 26 No. 6 July/August 2003.
This is the case of a six-year-old who had chronic sleep bruxism (causing abnormal tooth wear), morning headaches and cervical spine (neck) pain.
Adjustments to the upper cervical spine using the atlas transverse process as the contact point. There was “complete relief” of her chronic symptoms along with elimination of abnormal joint and structural problems.
A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. Tuchin PJ, Pollard H, Bonello R. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Feb. 2000:23(2), PP.91-5.
This was a six month study of 127 migraine sufferers half of whom had diversified chiropractic adjustments. The other half was the control group. Subjects in the manipulation group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in migraine frequency, headache duration, disability and medication use. 22% of those undergoing chiropractic care reported more than 90% reduction in migraines after two months. About 50% reported significant improvement in severity of migraine episodes.
Evidence report: behavioral and physical treatments for tension type and cervicogenic headache. McCrocy D and Gray R Duke University. 2001.
This report from Duke University compares the effectiveness of drug and other therapies for the most common type of headache – the cervicogenic headache. The report stated that chiropractic is more effective for headache (both in frequency and severity) than other soft tissue therapies and that chiropractic is superior to drug therapy, providing markedly superior long-term results.
Encephalgia/Migraine. Bofshever, H. International Chiropractic Pediatric Newsletter Jan/Feb 2000
A ten year-old girl with chronic, severe migraine (6 times a week for the past 3 years) was unable to go to school due to the severity of her condition. She was treated at a Children’s Hospital by a neurologist.
Chiropractic examination revealed VSC at C1/C2. The patient’s headaches improved following her 3rd adjustment (one week) at which time she stopped using PeriactinT Syrup (prescribed by her pediatrician). By the third week she was back in school and started dance classes for the first time in 2 years, “and actually began to smile again.” She was leading a normal and healthy life for a child her age by the end of the 5th visit.
The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for prophylaxis of migraine headache. Nelson CF, Bronfort G, Evans R, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, October 1998: Vol. 21, No. 8, pp 511-19.
This study compared the relative effectiveness of treating migraines with chiropractic care, the anti-depressant/anti-anxiety drug amitriptyline (brand name Elavil); and with a combination of both the drug therapy and chiropractic care.
Patients who received only chiropractic showed significant improvement, on a par with those given the powerful prescription drug (though without the side effects). The headache index, from a diary kept by each patient, showed chiropractic to have reduced the severity and frequency of headaches as well or better than the combined therapy or amitriptyline alone at each stage of the study.
A case series of migraine changes following a manipulative therapy trial. Tuchin PJ. Australasian Chiropractic & Osteopathy, Nov. 1997; 66(3), pp. 85-91.
This report discusses four cases of migraine that responded dramatically to chiropractic adjustments. Many self-reported symptoms were either eliminated or substantially reduced.
Average frequency of episodes was reduced by 90% with the length of each headache reduced by 38%. Medication use dropped 94%. Other symptoms associated with migraine were reduced including nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia.
Chronic pediatric migraine-type headaches treated by long-term Inderol prior to chiropractic care, a case report. Haney, VL, Colorado Springs, CO. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics. Oct, 1993 Palm Springs, CA. Pub. International Chiropractors Assoc., Arlington, VA
An 11-year-old pediatric female had an eight year history of severe migraine-type headaches, and a four year history of 20 mg. intake of Inderol daily. The headaches were still incapacitating the child approximately two times per week, despite medication. The child had been a hit and run victim at 18 months, with her first “known” headache occurring at about the age of three.
Cervical and thoraco-lumbo-pelvic x-rays revealed cervical hypolordosis, C1/C2 hyperextension subluxation and pelvic unleveling. Correction was accomplished using diversified style adjustment. The patient’s initial complaint of severe headaches resolved.
Follow-up x-rays show that there has been a decrease in thoracic and lumbar curvatures. She has slowly been weaned from Inderol, and is off all pain medications as well.
The effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1997; 20:326-330.
This is a randomized controlled trial performed at the University of Odense, Denmark by chiropractors and medical doctors.
Of 53 patients suffering from frequent headaches, 28 received high-velocity, low-amplitude cervical manipulation twice a week for three weeks. The remaining 25 received low-level laser in the upper cervical region and deep friction massage in the lower cervical/upper thoracic region, also twice a week for three weeks.
The use of analgesics decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, but was unchanged in the soft-tissue group; this difference was statistically significant. The number of headache hours per day decreased by 69% in the manipulation group compared with 37% in the soft-tissue group; this was significant. Finally, the headache intensity per episode decreased by 36% in the manipulation group, compared with 17% in the soft-tissue group; this was significant.
Recurrent low back pain and early disc degeneration in the young. Salminen JJ, Erkintalo MO, Pentti J et al. Spine 1999; 24(3):1316-21.
Out of 1,503 14 year olds 7.8%, reported recurrent low back pain (LBP). The children had MRIs at 15 and 18 years of age and were questioned about their LBP at ages 15, 18 and 22. Those children who showed signs of disc degeneration at age 15 were 16 times more likely to report LBP at age 23.
The study concluded: “Individuals with disc degeneration soon after the phase of rapid physical growth not only have an increased risk of recurrent low back pain but also a long-term risk of recurrent pain up to early adulthood.”
Management of cervical disc herniation with upper cervical chiropractic care: a case study. Eriksen K. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1998 21(1):51-56.
A 34-year-old man with severe neck, lower back and radicular pain of 1 year duration had previously received care from multiple medical specialists with little or no results. An MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a C6-C7 herniated nucleus pulposus. A needle electromyogram examination confirmed the presence of a C6-C7 radiculopathy with radiculopathic changes from C4-C7. X-ray analysis showed that the atlas and axis were misaligned. The patient was adjusted using Grostic procedures by hand. Within one month there were dramatic improvements in all subjective and objective findings At a one year follow-up it was concluded that surgery was not necessary.
Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations Ben Eliyahu, DJ. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 19 No. 19 Nov/Dec 1996.
Twenty-seven patients with MRI documented and symptomatic disc herniations of the cervical or lumbar spine were given chiropractic spinal care, flexion distraction, physiotherapy and rehabilitative exercises. Post-care MRIs revealed that 63% of the patients had a reduced or completely resorbed disc herniation. 78% of the patients were able to return to work in their pre-disability occupations.
Reduction of a confirmed C5-C6 disc herniation following specific chiropractic spinal manipulation: a case study. Siciliano MA, Bernard TA, Bentley, NJ. Chiropractic: The Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation Vol. 8 No. 1 April 1992.
This is the case of a 39-year-old male cable technician who complained of right neck and arm pain. He had a football injury 20 years prior and had some similar, temporary pain at that time. He now had an aching, deep pain running from the base of his neck to the right elbow and sometimes running sharply down his arm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thermography and Kronamaz muscle testing apparatus documented a C5-C6 disc herniation. Under chiropractic care the patient became symptom free and a later MRI revealed a reduction in the herniation.
Low force chiropractic care of two patients with sciatic neuropathy and lumbar disc herniation. Richards GL et al. Am J Chiro Med Mar 1990;3(1):25-32.
Two patients with sciatic neuropathy and confirmed disc herniation received chiropractic care. A follow-up CAT scan in the first patient revealed complete absence of disc herniation. A follow up scan in the second case revealed the continued presence of a silent disc bulge at the L3-4 level and partial decrease in a herniation at the L4-5 level. The bulge appeared to have shifted away from the nerve root. Both patients’ pain levels decreased from severe to minimal as they regained the ability to stand, sit and walk for longer periods without discomfort and lifting also became easier. They were able to return to full time work capacity at three and nine months respectively.
Disc regeneration: reversibility is possible in spinal osteoarthritis. Ressel, OJ. ICA Review March April 1989 pp. 39-61.
Osteoarthritis has been regarded as a product of “wear and tear” of the spine. This paper reveals that chiropractic management of osteoarthritis can lead to its arrest and even reversal.
Reabsorption of a herniated cervical disc following chiropractic treatment utilizing the atlas orthogonal technique: a case report. Robinson, G. Kevin. Abstracts from the 14th annual upper cervical spine conference Nov 22-23, 1997 Life University, Marietta, Ga. Pub. In Chiropractic Research Journal, Vol. 5, No.1, spring 1998.
A 44 year old man with a herniated cervical disc as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and adjusted utilizing chiropractic care (atlas orthogonal technique) is discussed. His symptoms included severe neck pain, constant burning, left arm pain and left shoulder pain plus paresthesia in the index finger of the left hand. Patient also had diminished grip strength on left hand, a hyporeflexive biceps and triceps on the left as well as a C6 and C7 sensory deficit on the left. The MRI scan revealed a large left lateral herniated disc at the C6-7 level.
By the fifth week of care, the patient’s symptoms of severe neck, shoulder, and arm pain were completely resolved. The patient’s numbness and grip strength improved consistently during the following six months. Comparative MRI obtained 14 months following the initial exam revealed total resolution of the herniated cervical disc.
Correction of multiple herniated lumbar disc by chiropractic intervention. Sweat R. Journal of Chiropractic Case Reports. Vol. 1 No. 1 Jan 1993.
This is the case of a 39 year old patient presenting with severe pain in his lower back, radiating into the buttocks, the thigh and his left calf and foot. A herniated nucleus pulposus at L-4 L-5 and L-5 S-1 was confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and surgical procedures were recommended. Chiropractic was begun utilizing the Atlas Orthogonal Percussion Instrument on the atlas vertebrae. After 4 weeks of care, he showed a 50% improvement and was not using medications. After six months of care a subsequent MRI radiologist’s report indicated that a herniation was not present.
Enhanced Phagocytic Cell respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation. JMPT 1991:14:399-408.
This study was designed to measure the effect that a Chiropractic adjustment has on the immune system. Blood was taken from each of the patients 15 minutes before and 15 minutes after the adjustment. These results were compared to patient’s blood test who received a sham (pretend) adjustment. The immune response from subjects who received the adjustment was significantly higher after than before treatment, and significantly higher than the response from the sham subjects.
Patients who come in with colds, sore throats, sinus congestion and stomach viruses often remark that their recovery seems to be accelerated by the chiropractic adjustment. Recent scientific developments now lend support to the idea that Chiropractic correction of the subluxation can aid the immune responses of the body by reducing nerve interference.
This is one of the most exciting areas of chiropractic. More and more research is pointing to an immune system enhancement effect of the spinal adjustment.
The effects of chiropractic on the immune system: a review of the literature. Allen JM, Chiropractic Journal of Australia, 1993; 23:132-135.
This is a summary of recent research implying a connection between chiropractic adjustments and immunocompetence. The literature suggests that the nervous system plays a role in the modulation of the immune response and that chiropractic adjustments influence T and B lymphocyte numbers, natural killer cell numbers, antibody levels, phagocytic activity and plasma endorphin levels. The few studies attempting to measure the effect of chiropractic or manipulative treatment on the immune response are reviewed.
The anatomical and physiological connections between the immune system and the nervous system suggest that the nervous system plays a role in the modulation of the immune response.
Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function. Felton, D.L., Felton, S.Y., Bellinger, D.L., et al. Immunol Rev 100:225-260, 1987.
This is one of a growing number of papers by researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology exploring the relationship between the nervous system and the immune system. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed.
A comparative study of the health status of children raised under the health care models of chiropractic and allopathic medicine. Van Breda, Wendy M. and Juan M. Journal of Chiropractic Research Summer 1989.
Children under chiropractic had less use of medications, including antibiotics.
An overview of neuroimmunomodulation and a possible correlation with musculoskeletal system function. Fidelibus J. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 12:4, 1989.
Receptors for neuromodulators and neurohormones have been identified on human T-lymphocytes. It is believed that the immune system can communicate with the nervous system using neuromodulators and neurohormones secreted by lymphocytes.
Chronic hyperemesis in two siblings with AIDS. Fallon, J Int’l Chiropractic Association Review Summer 2002.
Two male siblings ages 4 and 6 with “HIV infections” and “full-blown AIDS.”
Both boys suffered from severe hyperemesis (vomiting) associated with a hyperactive gag reflex and were on a liquid diet: the six-year-old by mouth and the 4-year-old by gastric tube. The 6-year-old had a viral load of 1,200 and was on a regime of antiviral drugs. His 4-year-old brother, with a viral load of 1,000,000 was on a cocktail of HIV medications (after the monotherapy failed).
The 4-year-old had a history of chronic ear infections and the 6-year-old had severe learning disabilities. Both boys needed a walker or bilateral canes. The older boy had uncontrollable dribbling.
Spinal examination of the 4-year-old revealed subluxations at occiput/atlas, C1, C4, T4, T9 and Tl2. Spinal examination of the 6-year-old revealed subluxations at C1, T1, T8 and AS of the right ileum.
Adjustments of the subluxated segments were begun; each boy was initially seen 2 times a week for three weeks.
Within three weeks of initial care the older boy could walk better, he was able to use only one cane instead of two, he ate solid food for the first time since birth, his chronic drooling stopped as did his gagging and vomiting. However, if he went longer than 30 days without an adjustment his gag reflex returned as well as the uncontrolled vomiting.
The younger boy was able to stop the gastric feeding and take liquid food orally, his vomiting reduced and his chronic ear infections ceased. In a few months he was able to eat solid food. His viral load dropped from 1,000,000 to 5! As long as he was adjusted 1-2 times per month, his vomiting did not return.
Chiropractic treatment and antibody levels. Alcorn, S. Journal of the Australian Chiropractic Association. 1977.
This paper reported increased levels of immunoglobulins in the blood serum of three patients under chiropractic care. A fourth patient did not respond to care.
The author speculates the vertebral subluxation complex (VSC) acts as a stressor, which causes increased secretion of cortical from the adrenal cortex. If cortisol levels exceed optimum levels, immunoglobulin secretion would be inhibited.
Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: potential role of substance P. Brennan PC, Kokjohn DC, Killinger CL et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 14 No 7 Sept 1991 p 399-408.
An interesting property of phagocytic cells (polymorphonuclear neutrophils or PMNs and monocytes in this study) is put to use in this study, that is, they emit light during phagocytosis (called “respiratory burst”).
Using 67 male and 32 female volunteers, blood was taken 15 minutes before and after subjects had a sham manipulation, a thoracic spine manipulation or a soft tissue manipulation.
More light was emitted from monocytes and PMNs after spinal manipulation than from the sham or soft tissue work. Substance P (SP) is a neurotransmitter released from the dorsal root ganglion and its plasma level was elevated after the manipulation. SP appears to be able to prime phagocytes for enhanced respiratory burst.
From the discussion: “Thus the data provided evidence that spinal manipulation elicits viscerosomatic responses; specifically, our study shows that manipulation affects cells involved in inflammatory and immune responses, at least over the short term.”
Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces: duration of the effect and association with substance P and tumor necrosis factor. Brennan PC, Triano JJ, McGregor M et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 15 no. 2 Feb.1992. P. 83-89.
This paper builds upon the one above. Using blood collected from 27 males and 19 females after a manipulation of the thoracic spine, the plasma levels of substance P (SP) and respiratory burst response of PMLNs was found to be higher 15 minutes after manipulation than from blood collected 15 minutes before or 30 and 45 minutes after manipulation. In addition to priming PMNs for enhanced respiratory burst (RB), SP also stimulates production of mononuclear cell tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Mononuclear cells are also primed for enhanced endotoxin-stimulated TNF production after manipulation.
From the discussion:
The data presented confirm and extend our previous reports that a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust to the thoracic spine primes PMN for an enhanced respiratory burst in response to a particulate challenge. Spinal manipulation also primes mononuclear cells for enhanced endotoxin stimulated TNF production…this has not been previously reported…. Thus these data further support the notion that spinal manipulation elicits viscerosomatic responses….”
The effect of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy on salivary cortisol levels. Tuchin PJ. Journal of Australasian Chiropractic and Osteopathy, July 1998; 7(2), pp. 86-92.
This is the study of six males and three females who had their baseline cortisol levels established and then received two-weeks of care (4 adjustments) follow by a two-week post adjustment period.
Saliva samples were analysed and results showed reduction or no increase of salivary cortisol suggesting that chiropractic care had a measurable calming, physically soothing and restorative effect.
Immunologic correlates of reduced spinal mobility: preliminary observations in a dog model. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Triano JJ et al. In: Proceeding of the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, FCER; 118-121.
The posterior facet joints of four beagles were surgically fused at L1/L2 and L2/L3 by injecting a sealant. T11/12 and T12/13 joints were fused on two of the beagles. Four beagles were used as controls.
The respiratory burst (RB) of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were depressed in the dogs who underwent the surgical fusion in contrast to the 4 dogs who had a sham surgical fusion. The results of this study suggest that spinal joint fixation results in immunosuppression.
The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, et al. Chiropractic Research Journal. 1994; 3(1): 32-39.
This was a study to determine if chiropractic care could help individuals diagnosed with HIV.
Five patients were adjusted and five were controls. After 6 months, in the control group (not under chiropractic care), the CD4 levels declined by 7.96% while the group receiving chiropractic adjustments experienced a 48% increase in CD4 cell counts. This indicates that correction of upper cervical subluxation could improve immunocompetence.
Chiropractic and HIV infection. Martin, C. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association. 1995;3212:41-44.
Recent research and case history analysis suggests that vertebral manipulation may have wide-ranging effects. From improvement in symptoms like peripheral neuropathy to stimulation of immune system, chiropractic appears to encourage individual well-being.
The reduction of stress, education of the patient towards an immunopositive lifestyle and the removal of nervous system interference are the central benefits which chiropractic offers.
Priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst by manipulation of the thoracic spine. Brennan P. and Hondras M Proceedings of the 1989 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. Pub: FCER: Arlington, VA. pp.160-163.
Manipulation of the thoracic spine appeared to increase the sensitivity of the white blood cells as indicated by respiratory burst.
Chiropractic care in adult spina bifida: a case report. Thomas RJ, Wilkinson RR. Chiropractic Technique, 1990; 2:191-193.
This is the case of a 31-year-old female with spina bifida at T11-L2 who presented with multiple symptoms that included muscle spasms, poor bladder control, recurrent bladder infection, swollen cervical lymph nodes, and possible immunosupression.
Chiropractic adjustments consisted of Logan Basic and other minimal force techniques. After 5 years of chiropractic care, her bladder has been infection-free for a period of more than a year; bladder control has improved and leg spasms have decreased in frequency and severity. Menstrual cramping also has reduced.
Based on the case history of recurrent infection, the author hypothesized that one effect of the vertebral subluxation complex was immunosuppression, which was relieved by chiropractic adjustments.
The side effects of the chiropractic adjustment. Burnier, A. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol. 1 No. 4 May 1995.
L.T. female age 7 ½ has been under chiropractic care since birth. She has never had the need to seek medical care, nor taken a single medication or over over-the-counter drug to date. Her presenting vertebral subluxation: Atlas ASLA, D3/D4 PI.
Original Adjustment: Structural manual adjustment of D3/D4 in extension prone and Atlas in supine position.
- Family 4 children age 1,2,3,5. All the children have been under regular chiropractic care since birth and have not needed for medication or over-the-counter drugs. Each child was checked soon after birth and then weekly thereafter. Adjustments were only given if and when subluxations were present. The children were adjusted in one or two places on an average of 21 day intervals.
Your immune system plays such an enormous role in the overall health of literally every cell and tissue in the body. Not only is it the immune system’s job to protect from coughs and colds but also it helps fight against cancer; repair damaged joints and slow down the aging process.
Successful In Vitro Fertilization in a Poor Responder While Under Network Spinal Analysis Care: A Case Report Senzon SA, J Vertebral Subluxation Research September 14, 2003, pp 1-6.
This case report describes the successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of a 34 year old female who had one previous aborted In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempt prior to Network Spinal Analysis (NSA) care that was attempted due to her partner’s azoospermia.
The patient had been treated medically Mircette (birth control pills), Lupron (a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist), and Gonal-F (a recombinant FSH). The IVF was cancelled due to poor response. The patient commenced regular NSA care and her body chemistry responded positively so that the next IVF was successful and was followed by a successful pregnancy. The patient is still under NSA care, and is now in her second trimester with normal fetal heart sounds.
The resolution of chronic colitis with chiropractic care leading to increased fertility Blum, CR J Vertebral Subluxation Research August 31, 2003, p 1-5.
A 32-year-old female presented at my office for chiropractic care of her chronic colitis and did not disclose her condition of infertility during the course of care at this office. There appears to be some relationship between chiropractic care and relief of some visceral conditions relating to the colon and female reproductive organs. Chiropractic care including Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT), chiropractic manipulative reflex technique (CMRT), and category one block placement and protocol were employed. The patient had her chronic condition of colitis relieved and relatively simultaneously became pregnant after giving up on allopathic fertility treatments that she had undergone for 7 years.
Case Study Reduction of Vertebral Subluxation using Torque Release Technique with Changes in Fertility: Two Case Reports J Vertebral Subluxation Research Anderson-Peacock E., July 19, 2003, pp 1-6.
Two women had been deemed medically infertile and artificial insemination was being considered. Upon presentation, complete chiropractic evaluations were performed which detected spinal subluxations. Torque Release Technique Protocols were utilized for both evaluation and application of care. Adjustments were performed with an instrument, the Integrator, to improve spinal-neural integrity. During the course of chiropractic care both women were able to conceive. Although chiropractic care is not a treatment for infertility, it is postulated that improvement of spinal neural integrity through specific chiropractic adjustments may have contributed to improved homeostasis and physiological adaptation thus allowing the body to express a greater level of health as an outcome.
Insult, interference and infertility: an overview of chiropractic research. Behrendt, M. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research May 2, 2003, p. 1-8.
This paper reviews 14 retrospective articles involving 15 women aged 22-65. Eleven had no history of pregnancy, nine had previous treatment for infertility, four were undergoing infertility treatments when starting chiropractic care and had a “poor responder undergoing multiple cycles of IVF” (in-vitro fertilization).
Chiropractic care’s successful outcomes are discussed and the various adjusting techniques used are reviewed.
Manipulative Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, 2nd ed. Lewit K (1991), Butterworth-Heineman, Ltd. Oxford.
“There is growing evidence that female infertility may be attributable to pelvic dysfunction.”
The author quotes a randomized, controlled trial by Volejnikova and Krupicka (1992) in the journal Manuelle Medizin where 34% of the women in the treatment group became pregnant within months compared to 8% in the control group. After the study ended the women in the control group were given spinal care and a further 27% of them became pregnant.
Fertility via the back door. Davidson, M What Doctors Don’t Tell You. March 2001 Vol. 11 No. 12 p.12.
“A couple had lost their third child in a tragic accident and wanted another child to complete their family. They had been trying without success for three years. The woman, who was 38, [initially] received a chiropractic adjustment; her husband was adjusted a few months later. Within 12 months, they had a fine, healthy child.”
Chiropractic applications for infertility. Anderson, C. ICA Review. September/October 2000.
This is the case history of a 40 year-old female who had a miscarriage at 16 weeks. Midback pain brought her to the chiropractor. Postural studies revealed anterior head carriage, right head tilt, high shoulder, and high hip, hypokyphotic spine and pronation of both feet. A spinal and postural analysis revealed interference at C1 and C2 with other areas involved at C3, T1, T2, T6, L5 and S1.
The patient was adjusted using diversified technique and neuro-emotional technique. The husband also began to have chiropractic care. She became pregnant, carried to term and delivered a baby girl on Jan 30th, 2000.
Inability to conceive. Two case histories from the files of Larry L. Webster, D.C. International Chiropractic Pediatric Association Newsletter. Nov. 1995.
Case number 1: This is the case history of a female, age 32. Her prior care had been medical and she received fertility pills and shots with negative results. She had not had a menstrual period for 12 years.
The major area of the spine adjusted was the lumbar region. After two months of chiropractic care, her menses resumed. Patient complained of abdominal discomfort during cycle.
It was the author’s opinion that this discomfort would be a natural occurrence following an absence of menses for 12 years. Her menses returned and occurred on a regular cycle for four months when she conceived.
She was referred back to her medical doctor for confirmation of pregnancy. Her doctor informed her it was impossible for her to be pregnant – after all, he had done everything medically possible “and besides, there were no nerves emitting from the spine to the reproductive organs.” A few months later she delivered a healthy 7 ½ lb. Son.
Case number 2: This is the case of a female, age 26 who had been trying to get pregnant for a few years. She had taken the medical route with fertility pills, shots, etc. with negative results.
She had a severe scoliosis (Cobb’s angle of 58°) and, upon examination, was informed that chiropractic care could affect the Cobb’s angle and that possibly the severity of the curve with the subluxations present could be the reason for her body’s inability to conceive.
After six months of care x-rays revealed the Cobb’s angle was reduced to 47°. Approximately one month later, she became pregnant and remained under care throughout the pregnancy and delivered a fine baby with no complications. The areas adjusted were sacrum, lumbar and cervical spine.
No side posture moves were utilized in this case.
The restoration of female fertility in response to chiropractic treatment. Proceedings of the national conference on chiropractic and pediatrics, 1994:55-64. McNabb B.
This is the case history of a 36-year-old woman who had been medically tested and examined for infertility for one year. No abnormalities were found in her or her husband’s reproductive system.
When she finally sought chiropractic care she had pelvic pain (often interfering with sleep), low neck and upper back pain, a headache of two weeks duration and tinnitus of several years duration.
Chiropractic care consisted of adjustments to C1-2, T11-T12, and L-4-5. Care was three times a week for two weeks, twice a week for four weeks and once a week for 3 weeks.
The pelvic, lower neck and upper back pain, and tinnitus were improved. Headaches became mild and rare. Patient become pregnant shortly thereafter and had an uncomplicated delivery.
Osteopathic physicians have been aware of subluxations (they call them spinal lesions) and infertility. Early osteopathic literature has many references relating to this subject.
Vertebral lesions and the course of pregnancy in animals. Burns, L. Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association Vol. 23 No. 3 November 1923.
Dr. L.M. Whiting of South Pasadena, has reported the evil effects of vertebral lesions upon the course of pregnancy and labor in several articles and lectures. She reports many normal pregnancies followed normal labor in healthy young women in whom there are no vertebral lesions. In contrast she reports that no normal pregnancies followed by normal labor were found in any case in which lumbar, innominate or lower thoracic lesions were found on examination.”
“Dr. Jeanette Bolles, of Denver, also reports several family case studies in which pregnancy and healthy births did not occur until the correction of specific lumbar lesion(s).”
“Dr. A.V. Fish, Sapulpa, Oklahoma, reports an interesting case. After four years of sterile married life, the correction of lesions involving the innominate and the fifth lumbar vertebrae was followed by an almost normal pregnancy. The patient became pregnant within two weeks after the correction.”
Leg Length Alignment Asymmetry In A Non-clinical Population And Its Correlation To A Decrease In General Health As Measured By The SF-12: A Pilot Study
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between a test commonly used by chiropractors as a sign of subluxation/joint dysfunction – supine leg length alignment (LLA) asymmetry – and health-related quality of life as measured by the SF-12 questionnaire, in a non-clinical population.
This pilot study suggests that in this group of volunteers (n=50) from the non-clinical general population, those who demonstrated a commonly used sign of subluxation/joint dysfunction – supine leg length alignment asymmetry – had a significantly (P=0.017) lower measure of general health as determined by the SF-12 survey than those volunteers without such asymmetry. Further investigation to clarify this relationship and to establish whether there is a connection between the putative entity of chiropractic subluxation and unloaded leg length alignment asymmetry is recommended.
Cervical mobilization: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity. Sterling M, Jull G, Wright A. Man Ther (Manual Medicine) 2001;6(2):72-81.
In this paper, 30 patients with middle or lower neck (cervical) pain had “spinal manipulative therapy” (SMT) and their pain reduced after care.
Spinal care was found to have a pain fighting effect (“a hypoalgesic effect) as pain thresholds increased. It was also found that the sympathetic nervous system, which affects the functions of the internal organs, was affected: The authors wrote: “The treatment technique also produced a sympathoexcitatory effect with an increase in skin conductance and a decrease in skin temperature.”
Chiropractic treatment of post surgical neck syndrome utilizing mechanical force manually assisted short-lever spinal adjustments. Polkinghorn B and Colloca CJ Manipulative Physiol Ther November/December 2001. Vol 24 No. 9.
This is the case of a 35-year-old female who, after having neck surgery two separate times (a discectomy at C3/4 and a fusion at C5/6) suffered from chronic neck pain for over 5 years.
She had originally undergone the surgeries to resolve neck pain. Her surgeon suggested a third surgery but she decided on chiropractic care. Within 30 days of chiropractic care all her chronic pain and muscle spasm resolved. A follow-up two years later revealed no recurrences of her previous chronic problem.
Chronic spinal pain syndromes: a clinical pilot trial comparing acupuncture, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and spinal manipulation. Giles LG, Muller R. J Manipulative Physiol Ther July/August 1999:22(6), pp.376-81.
Seventy seven patients were divided into three groups. One group received needle acupuncture, one group an NSAID and one group chiropractic care.
They were followed up after 30 days. Spinal care was the only intervention to achieve a statistically significant improvement. Patients receiving chiropractic care demonstrated a 30.7% reduction in Oswestry scores and a 25% reduction in neck disability index scores, a 50% reduction for low back pain, 46% reduction for upper back pain and 33% reduction for neck pain. Acupuncture and NSAIDS provided no significant improvement.
Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. Hurwitz EL, Aker PD et al. Spine, 1996;21(15):1746-1760.
In this review of research, the authors concluded that for those suffering from chronic neck pain, chiropractic adjustments are more effective than any other approach.
Chiropractic treatment of cervical radiculopathy caused by a herniated cervical disc. Brouillette DL, Gurske, DT. Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, Feb 1994; 17(2): 119-123.
This is the case study of a 60-year-old woman with a MRI documented herniated cervical disc.
Symptoms included deep, constant, burning ache in the left arm, and severe neck and left shoulder pain. Under chiropractic care the patient’s pain and numbness disappeared and her grip-strength returned to normal within 5 months.
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy treated with the Meric technique: a case report. Gemmell, HA. Chiropractic Technique, Feb 1994; 6(1): 14-16.
This is the case of an annular disc protrusion with nerve root compression at level C-5 of a 69-year-old white male.
From the abstract:
Patient exhibited toothache-like pain over the left upper trapezius and deltoid muscles with an absent biceps reflex, decreased sensation to pinprick in the C5 dermatome, and a weak deltoid muscle. The patient was successfully treated over 26 days with eight treatments using Meric adjustments and supportive therapy. He remained pain free, without neurological signs, at the 4-month follow-up.
Soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine: a 15-year follow-up. Squires B, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. J of Bone and Joint Surgery (British Edition), 1996; (70B), pp955-57.
Ten and fifteen years after the original accident, some patients continue to complain of neck pain, back pain, headaches and/or dizziness.
This is the study of 40 patients with a whiplash injury assessed an average of 15.5 years after the injury.
This shows us that whiplash symptoms may remain for years without resolution. The most common complaint was neck pain, followed by back pain, headaches and dizziness. Psychological disturbances were seen in 52% of the patients.
Between 10 and 15 years after their initial injuries, only 18% of the patients demonstrated significant improvement. Twenty-eight percent showed deterioration.
Brain SPECT findings in late whiplash syndrome. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Fierz L. Lancet 1995; 345:1512-13.
Why do people with neck pain and whiplash sometimes suffer vision, hearing and personality disturbances? A study using a new technology shows that such patients have decreased blood flow in certain brain areas and that pain irritation from the upper neck appears to affect the blood supply to the brain.
Using technetium-99m hexanethylproplyrnrsminroxime single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), they found that six of seven patients with nontraumatic cervical pain had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion. In 24 patients confirmed by independent observers to be suffering from cognitive disturbances after whiplash injury, all had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion compared with 15 normal control subjects.
Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine: a systematic review of the literature. Hurwitz EL, Aker PD, Adam AH, Meeker WC, Shekelle PG. Spine 1996; 21:1746-60.
This was an analysis of the medical literature from 1966 to 1996 regarding cervical spine manipulation for neck pain and headache. Data was summarized and randomized controlled clinical trials were critically appraised. Cervical spinal adjustments were found superior to other therapies (muscle relaxants and medical care) for neck and headache. Chiropractic provided chronic neck pain patients with superior results when compared with acupuncture and drugs.
Reduction of a confirmed C5-C6 disc herniation following specific chiropractic spinal manipulation: a case study. Siciliano MA, Bernard TA, Bentley, NJ. Chiropractic: The Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation Vol. 8 No. 1 April 1992.
This is the case of a 39-year-old male cable technician who complained of right neck and arm pain. Twenty years earlier he had a football injury and had some similar, temporary pain at that time. He now had an aching, deep pain running from the base of his neck to the right elbow and sometimes running sharply down his arm.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thermography and Kronamaz muscle testing apparatus documented a C5-C6 disc herniation. Under chiropractic care the patient was symptom free. After 13 chiropractic visits, a post comparative MRI revealed a reduction in the herniation.
Reabsorption of a herniated cervical disc following chiropractic treatment utilizing the atlas orthogonal technique: a case report. Robinson, Kevin. Abstracts from the 14th annual upper cervical spine conference Nov 22-23, 1997, Life University, Marietta, Ga. Pub. in Chiropractic Research Journal, Vol. 5, No.1, Spring 1998.
This is the case of a 44 year-old man whose symptoms were as follows: severe neck pain, constant burning, left arm pain and left shoulder pain plus paresthesia in the index finger of the left hand. Patient also had diminished grip strength on left hand using dynamometer testing. Tests also revealed hyporeflexive biceps and triceps on the left as well as a C6 and C7 sensory deficit on the left. The MRI scan revealed a large left lateral herniated disc at the C6-7 level.
By the fifth week of care the patient’s symptoms of severe neck, shoulder, and arm pain were completely resolved. The patient’s numbness and grip strength improved consistently during the following six months. Comparative MRI obtained 14 months following the initial exam revealed total resolution of the herniated cervical disc.
The efficacy of chiropractic therapy on premenstrual syndrome: a case series study. Walsh, MJ, Chandaraj S, Pulos BI Chiropractic Journal of Australia 24:122-6.
This study demonstrated significant improvement of symptoms in women suffering from pre-menstrual syndrome. To compare a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of chiropractic therapy on premenstrual syndrome was undertaken.
Walsh MJ, Polus BI Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1999;22(9):582-585.
This is a study of 25 subjects suffering from PMS. Sixteen of the patients received chiropractic care and nine received ‘placebo treatment.
A little over half the women in the study reported “significant” improvement in symptom levels after chiropractic care.
The frequency of positive common spinal clinical examination findings in a sample of premenstrual syndrome sufferers. Walsh, M, Polus B. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 22, number 4. May 1999.
This was a study of 54 subjects with diagnosed premenstrual syndrome (PMS) who were compared with non-PMS controls carried out at RMIT teaching clinics in Australia.
The PMS group showed a higher incidence of spinal dysfunction as compared to the control group. The PMS group had more cervical, thoracic and low back tenderness, scored higher in Neck Disability Index, low back testing weakness and low back orthopaedic testing.
Premenstrual syndrome: a clinical update for the chiropractor. Walsh MJ. Chiropractic Journal of Australia. June 1993; 23(2): 48-53.
From the paper:
A holistic chiropractic management regime offers the possibility of a safe, effective method of reducing many of the symptoms of PMS.
Chiropractic approach to premenstrual syndrome. Wittler NA. Chiropractic: The Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation. 1992; (8): 22-29.
Eleven women with histories of PMS symptoms that had occurred regularly for more than 4 months were given chiropractic spinal adjustments. The care continued through four menstrual cycles and consisted of 5-7 spinal adjustments per month.
The subjects were given questionnaires at the beginning and end of the care. They evaluated changes in irritability and mood swings, tension, ineffectiveness, lack of motor coordination, mental/cognitive functioning, eating habits, variations in sexual drive and activity, overall physical symptoms, and social impairment.
The subjects reported improvement in all ten categories with the greatest improvement of symptoms relating to variations in sexual drive (70.7%), social impairment (64.5%), and mood swings (60.8%). The overall average improvement in all symptom categories was 44.2%.
Vertebral subluxation and premenstrual tension syndrome: a case study. Hubbs EC. Research Forum, 1986; Summer: 100 -102.
This is the case of a 28 year-old female with a chronic history of low back pain and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome consisting of intermittent cramping for 24 hours prior to and during early menstrual flow, depression, bloating, agitation, and nervous eating.
After chiropractic spinal adjustments to L1 her premenstrual cramping went from 24 hours to 30 minutes. In addition, her lumbar pain ceased.
The role of chiropractic in pregnancy. Vallone S. Int’l Chiropractic Assn. Review Summer 2002. p 47-51.
“By encouraging regular chiropractic and maternal self care (which includes good nutrition, regular stretching and exercise and stress management) we can improve our patient’s probability of a successful natural delivery.”
Follow-up of patients with low back pain during pregnancy. Brynhildsen J, Hansson A, Persson A, Hammar M. In: Obstetrics & Gynecology, Feb 1998; 91(2): 182-6.
Women with severe low back pain during pregnancy have an extremely high risk for experiencing a new episode of more severe low back pain during future pregnancies and when not pregnant.
Hypolumbarlordosis: a predisposing factor for preeclampsia. Kanayama N. Maradny EE, Kajiwara Y. et al. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 1997;75: 115-121.
About 1 in 200 pregnant women suffer from preeclampsia with hypertension and albuminaria (protein in urine) and which can lead to seizures, coma and death. No one knows what causes it.
The authors studied pregnant women to see if there was a relationship between their spinal shape, particularly the lumbar (lower back) spinal shape and preeclampsia. It was revealed that women with decreased lumbar spine curves had more preeclampsia. Interestingly, they also found that patients with reduced lumbar curves had decreased blood flow to the iliac artery than normal pregnant women.
The effects of chiropractic treatment on pregnancy and labor: a comprehensive study. Fallon J. Proceedings of the world chiropractic congress. 1991; 24-31.
The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy can change the shape of the spinal curves and overall posture which can affect organ systems.
In this study Dr. Fallon describes her work with 65 women who received chiropractic care from at least the tenth week of pregnancy through labor and delivery. These women experienced mean labor times significantly reduced compared to controls.
Women who were primagravidae (first pregnancy) who received chiropractic care averaged 24% shorter labor times than average for primagravidae women.
Women who were multiparous (had had at least one child prior) averaged 39% shorter labor times versus controls.
Back pain during pregnancy and labor. Diakow, PRP, Gadsby, TA, Gadsby JB et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther Vol. 14, No. 2 Feb. 1991.
From the abstract:
An interview of 170 consecutive female patients: of the 170 pregnancies with reported back pain, 72% also reported back labor…The treated group experienced less pain during labor.
Eighty-four per-cent of patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy reported relief of back pain during pregnancy. There was significantly less likelihood of back labor when spinal manipulative therapy was administered during pregnancy.
The effect of chiropractic treatment on pregnancy and labor: a comprehensive study. Fallon J. New York, NY: Yeshiva University. From 1991, World Chiropractic Congress Abstracts.
One half of all pregnant women complain to their obstetricians about backache (LeBan et al. 1983); it can be demonstrated that chiropractic care significantly reduces the mean labor time.
Chiropractic and pregnancy, a partnership for the future. Fallon J. ICA Review Nov/Dec 1990. Pp. 39-42.
This paper discusses neurological conditions associated with subluxation in pregnancy: brachial neuralgia, compression of the brachial plexus causing tingling and numbness in the shoulder and arm; neuralgia paresthetica, compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve causing pain and paresthesia of the thigh; intercostal neuralgia, compression of the intercostal nerves causing radiating pain between the ribs; sciatic neuralgia, compression of lumbar plexus causing pain of the pelvic region and/or radiating down leg; coccydynia, pain at site of coccyx; separation of the symphysis pubis, causing pain at the symphysis pubis and SI joint; Carpal tunnel syndrome, compression of median nerve; Bell’s Palsy, compression of CN VII causing paralysis of facial muscles; traumatic neuritis, motor and sensory deficits of L5, S1 and S2 after labor.
Pregnancy and chiropractic care. Penna M, American Chiropractic Association Journal of Chiropractic. Nov. 1989 p.31.
From the summary:
“Regular adjustments can make pregnancy less stressful and delivery less uncomfortable. Chiropractic treatment can continue safely until the day of delivery.”
AMA study shows that pregnant women under chiropractic care have easier pregnancy and delivery. American Medical Association records released in 1987 during trial in U.S. District Court Northern Illinois Eastern Division, No. 76C 3777.
Irvin Hendryson, M.D. a member of the American Medical Association board of trustees, did a clinical study which revealed that pregnant women who received chiropractic adjustments in their third trimester were able to carry to term more frequently and deliver children with more comfort.
Medical expert state that less painkillers needed during delivery if patient under chiropractic care. Freitag, P. Expert testimony of Pertag, M.D., Ph.D. comparing results of two neighboring hospitals. U.S. District Court Northern Illinois Eastern Division, No. 76C 3777, May 1987.
A study was conducted in which chiropractic adjustments were incorporated into patients’ pregnancies. It revealed that the need for painkillers during delivery was reduced by half under chiropractic care. It was revealed that the AMA suppressed this study because it showed chiropractic effectiveness.
Effect of pressure applied to the upper thoracic (placebo) versus lumbar areas (osteopathic manipulative treatment) for inhibition of lumbar myalgia during labor. Guthrie R, Martin R. Journal of The American Osteopathic Association, Dec. 1982, Vol. 82 No. 4, pp.247-251.
From the abstract:
In a study of 500 women during labor, 352 experienced pain in the lumbar area during labor, an incidence of 70.4%. One of the most interesting findings of the study was the association of back pain during labor and abnormal fetal presentation.
Application of pressure to the lumbar area to inhibit lumbar pain reduced the need for major narcotic pain medication and minor tranquilizing medication.
What is the role of osteopathic manipulative therapy in obstetric care? For normal patients? For patients with problems (e.g. toxemia of pregnancy)? Hampton D. Journal of The American Osteopathic Association, Nov.1974, Vol.74, p. 192.
Adjustments keep the segments of the pregnant woman’s structure moving freely and normally. It permits a constant free flow of all body fluids and a normal venous supply to control function. During the second 6 weeks of pregnancy, the growing fetus and expanding uterus often settle in the hollow of the sacrum and relief of nausea may be achieved…adjustments…results in an easier pregnancy and an easier delivery. The return of the mother to prepartum health also is expedited by adjustments. Adjustments has a part in the prevention and cure of toxemia.
Non-operative treatments for sciatica: a pilot study for a randomized clinical trial. Bronfort G, Evans RL, Anderson AV et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics October 2000, Vol. 23 No. 8.
This is a prospective, observer-blinded, pilot randomized clinical trial of 20 patients aged 20-65 with low back-related leg pain. Patients were divided into three groups. One group was given medical care, one group chiropractic care and one group steroid injections. All groups showed substantial improvement at the end of the 12 week study.
Lack of effectiveness of bed rest for sciatica. Patrick CAJ, Vroomen MD, Marc CTFM, et al. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;340:418-423.
Many medical doctors prescribe bed rest for sciatica, yet according to the authors: “For low back pain, bed rest has traditionally been considered effective, although there is little objective data to support this view. In recent years evidence of the ineffectiveness of bed rest for low back pain has accumulated, but bed rest continues to still be widely used for treatment of sciatica.”
From the conclusion: “Among patients with symptoms and signs of a lumbosacral radicular syndrome, bed rest is not a more effective therapy than watchful waiting.”
From Mobilization of the Spine (1984) by Grieve GP Churchill Livingston, London/New York, 4th edition, 22-23.
“All those experienced in manipulation can report numerous examples of migrainous headaches, disequilibrium (vertigo), subjective visual disturbances, feelings of retro-orbital pressure, dysphagia, dysphonia, heaviness of a limb, extra segmental paraesthesia, restriction of respiratory excursion, abdominal nausea and the cold sciatic leg being relieved by manual or mechanical treatment of the vertebral column.”
Low force chiropractic care of two patients with sciatic neuropathy and lumbar disc herniation. Richards GL et al. Am J Chiro Med Mar 1990;3(1):25-32.
From the abstract:
Two patients with sciatic neuropathy and confirmed disc herniation were treated with low force treatment regimen consisting of Activator instrument adjusting, pelvic blocking, high voltage galvanic current and exercises. Follow-up CAT scans in the first case (revealed) complete absence of disc herniation. The second case follow up scan revealed the continued presence of a silent disc bulge at the L3-4 level and partial decrease in a herniation at the L4-5 level. The bulge appeared to have shifted away from the nerve root. Both patients’ pain levels decreased from severe to minimal. The patients regained the ability to stand, sit and walk for longer periods without discomfort; lifting tasks also became easier. The patients were able to return to full work capacity at three and nine months respectively.
Chiropractic and Stress
Chiropractic understands stress, whether it be physical, chemical or emotional in nature. Stress affects the body’s ability to properly function and leads to poor health from the affects of subluxation. More and more research keeps piling up to support this concept, but the short and long-term effects of stress and subluxation are hardly ever addressed by the modern medical system. Yet this is exactly what happened in 1964 when Hans Selye, M.D. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine!
In the 1950’s, Dr. Selye studied the effect of stress on the human body and presented his work to the world in the concept of the “General Adaptation Syndrome,” for which he won the 1964 Nobel Prize. This was a revolutionary concept of mental and physical illness and it was, at the time, acclaimed as the most important and far-reaching idea in the history of medicine…that STRESS is the cause of all disease.
In his book, “The Stress of Life,” Selye described how, as a medical student, he first noticed that the early signs of many illnesses were identical—loss of energy and appetite, generalized aches and pains, and so on. He wondered why these vague symptoms were taken for granted by his instructors. Years of research gradually led him to realize that these commonly related symptoms were actually part of a pattern, the arousing of the body’s resistance to a stress-causing agent. It did not matter whether the stressor came from a mechanical, chemical, nutritional, biological, or even emotional source. The body always reacted in an identical manner.
According to Selye, the body produces an alarm reaction to any form of stress that threatens its well-being. Unless the stress is unusually strong, we are not even aware of the body’s response. This initial alarm reaction is followed by a period of adaptation to the stress, or compensation, if the stress continues unabated. This process will continue until the body’s vital energy is exhausted and symptoms become apparent. It is at this point that the patient usually seeks help but usually from an over-the-counter remedy at the pharmacy, not in a doctor’s office. If the symptoms continue and the body’s ability to maintain normal function becomes more exhausted, professional help must be sought. For most problems, the process is a slow and a gradual slide into a disease that can be measured and eventually named. The diseased person then becomes, we are told, the exclusive property of the medical and insurance communities.
I do not have a problem with disease and degeneration coming under the medical umbrella. That is what medical professionals are trained to deal with. I do have difficulty with the concept of their ability to recognize disease before a pathological process can be identified. The truth is, the patient must be diseased (quantified and qualified) before medicine can hope to be effective. Otherwise, it is just guesswork. Chiropractic can be applied to anyone to improve the overall health of the individual, regardless if symptoms are present or not. In this respect, chiropractic is a universal health care option, whereas medicine is limited to treating disease rather than restoring health. There is a HUGE difference.
Every diseased patient has already gone through the periods of stress, alarm, reaction, adaptation or compensation, and exhaustion BEFORE the disease was named and specific therapy begun. During this period of time, whether a specific disease has been identified or not – a chiropractor using a careful case history and examination can identify the stress, assist in its removal, and correct the most damaging effect of stress on the bodies normal function – the subluxation. In this way, disease can be prevented and an enormous service rendered to humanity, through a service no medicine is able to provide – the adjustment.
Dr. Selye’s book says, “Apparently, disease is not just suffering, but a fight to maintain the homeostatic balance of our tissues, despite damage. Could all of this vagueness be translated into the precise terms of modern medical science? Could it point a way to explore whether or not there is some non-specific defense system built into our body, a mechanism to fight any kind of disease?”
A multiple parameter assessment of whiplash injury patients undergoing subluxation based chiropractic care: a retrospective study. McCoy HG and McCoy M. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research Vol 1, No 3, 1997 Pp. 51-61.
From the Abstract:
A retrospective study was conducted of 57 subjects who had experienced an acceleration/deceleration (whiplash) injury.. With subluxation-based chiropractic care, the subject population showed significant increases in cervical flexion and extension, muscle strength, and a decrease in the neck pain disability index. Atlas/axis and Jackson’s angles varied inversely from presentation to MCI (maximum chiropractic improvement). Longer durations of care were correlated with the lower ratios (fewer adjustments/week), while shorter durations of care to reach MCI were correlated to higher ratios (average adjustments/week).
The following studies show the consequences of not correcting the cause…
Post-traumatic headache. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinica. Neuroscience 6(3): 229-236, 1994.
From the abstract:
The authors review post-traumatic headache (PTH). The most common symptom following head injury, PTH is paradoxically most severe after mild head injury. Although most cases resolve within 6-12 months, many patients have protracted or even permanent headache. Because PTH generally has no objective findings, it is often controversial whether the symptom is “real,” “psychogenic,” or “fabricated.” Despite persisting beliefs by physicians, attorneys, and insurers that PTH resolves upon legal settlement, recent studies have shown that “permanent” PTH is usually present several years after a legal settlement. Often PTH affects family life, recreation, and employment. Patients require education and support as well as appropriate evaluation and treatment.
Visceral diseases as a sequela of brain damages. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk (1): 12-15, 1994.
From the abstract:
In the period following mild closed brain injury, diseases of the viscera and the body’s systems develop as a result of diffuse lesions in the brain regions. Experimental studies have shown that this is associated with impaired self-regulatory mechanisms responsible for energy metabolic processes in the brain.
The relationship between whiplash injury and subsequent lower back complications. Neel SS et al. Chiropractic Oct 1988;1(3):86-88.
It has been observed that people who suffer from whiplash injuries develop low back pain. This study interviewed 52 patients who had been involved in a whiplash type injury and found that 85% of them reported lower back pain after the whiplash.
The patients in this study had no previous motor vehicle accidents, were wearing lap and harness seat belts and had no previous low back pain.
Relationship between early somatic, radiological, cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering from common whiplash. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33:442-8.
Initial examinations of 117 whiplash patients were performed a few days after the accident, and 3, 6 and 12 months afterwards. After one year, 28 patients (24% of total) were symptomatic. Poor improvements were associated with severity of injury, previous history of head trauma and headache, sleep disturbance immediately after accident, nervousness and reduced speed of information processing.
Considerations in the rehabilitation of cervical myofascial injury, Canadian Family Physician, Vol. 32, Sept. 1986.
About 10-15% of motor vehicle cervical injuries fail to achieve a functional recovery 2-3 years after the accident.
Whiplash injuries: their long-term prognosis and its relationship to compensation Hodgson, S.P., Neuro-Orthopedics 7, 1989.
62% of the people injured in a whiplash soft-tissue trauma will have continued complaints between 10 and 15 years after the date of the accident.
PET and SPECT in whiplash syndrome: a new approach to a forgotten brain? Otte A, Ettlin TM, Nitzsche EU, Wachter K, Hoegerle S, Simon GH, Fierz L, Moser E, Mueller-Brand J. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997; 63:368-372.
From the abstract:
Whiplash associated disorders are a medicolegally controversial condition becoming increasingly worrisome to the western world. This study was designed to evaluate perfusion and glucose metabolism in [the] whiplash brain.
The study involved six patients suffering from whiplash syndrome and 12 normal controls. They gave everyone chemicals that reveal brain function when viewed by specialized equipment (PET and SPECT) that is similar to a CAT scan for the brain. In the patient group, there was “significant hypometabolism” or decreased brain function and hypoperfusion or decreased blood in the parieto-occipital regions on the right and left side compared to the control group.
But most revealing was the authors’ statement as to the possible cause of the brain changes after they ruled out direct injury to the brain and brain structures: “It is hypothesized that parieto-occipital hypometabolism may be caused by activation of nociceptive afferent nerves from the upper cervical spine.”
Chronic cervical zygopophysial joint pain after whiplash: a placebo-controlled prevalence study. Lord, WM, Barnsley L. Wallis BJ, Bogduk N. Spine. 1996;21:1737-45.
This double-blind placebo-controlled trial implicates the facet joints as the most common pain source from whiplash type injury. It builds on other research pointing to the same source of whiplash pain.